This is a Glossary of Terms that you have, or will, hear and/or read about throughout the Cannabis Cultivating World! It is in alphabetical order for easier reference. _______ 12/12 - 12 hours of light / 12 hours of darkness. The photoperiod used to initiate the flowering stage of the plant when growing under artificial lighting. 18/6 - 18 hours of light / 6 hours of darkness. Probably the most common photoperiod normally associated with the vegetative stage of growth when growing under artificial lighting. *Note: Other common vegetative photoperiods are 20/4, 24/0 and 6/6. 20/4 has been shown to promote the healthiest root and canopy growth, but 18/6 is often used to save on power and used to be the main photoperiod used before people started experimenting themselves (if you read an old book an growing it is likely to say you must veg under 18/6 and will probably not mention any other vegetative photoperiods. 6/6 is rarely used, but does have its place, it will result in a slower rate of growth if for some, strange, reason that's what you want* A/C (Air Conditioning) - A system for cooling and controlling the humidity and purity of the air circulating in a space. Abiotic Stress - Stress caused by non-living environmental factors. E.g: Frost, Wind, Hail, Drought. Aeroponics (Aero) - A method of growing that utilizes a hydroponic solution vaporized into an aerosol solution with misters. This nutrient fog envelopes the root system of the plant, allowing for maximum absorption of both oxygen and nutrients. As the vapor condenses, it is channeled back to a central reservoir and re-vaporized. *Is said to be 10x more efficient than standard soil and 30% more efficient than standard Hydroponic systems* Air cooled hood (A/C Hood) - Air is drawn through an enclosed reflector around a high intensity discharge bulb to remove the heat generated by the bulb. Allele - One of two or more alternative forms of a gene, occupying the same position locus on paired chromosomes and controlling the same inherited characteristic. Ampere (Amp) - The basic unit of electric current in the SI system, equal to a current that produces a force of 2x10-7(the -7 means to the power of -7) newtons per meter between two parallel conductors in a vacuum. The symbol for ampere is A. Auto-Flowering - A plant that automatically flowers no matter what the photoperiod is. Most of the strains that auto-flower are either pure Ruderalis or contain genes from Ruderalis plants. Auxin - A natural plant hormone or synthetic substance that affects the growth and development of all plant parts, auxins govern many biological processes in plants such as cell enlargement and division, differentiation of vascular tissue, apical dominance, root initiation and signaling. Ballast - Provides current and power to HID Bulb. Ballasts come as either a HPS or MH ballast, and has a Watt rating of usually either 250, 400, 600 or 1000 Watts. Each Watt rating requires a bulb of an equal rating to run. E.g: One 600 Watt HPS Ballast must run one 600 Watt HPS Bulb. *New Digital Ballasts can run either HPS or MH, but the Watt rating must still match the Watt rating of the bulb. You can aslo purchase conversion bulbs, such as 400 Watt MH bulbs that will run on a 400 Watt HPS Ballast. Mixing bulbs and ballasts may result in fire, always check they are compatible before using them. Biological Control - A method of reducing or eliminating plant pests by introducing predators or micro-organisms that attack the targeted pests but spare other species in the area. BHO (Butane Honey Oil) - A method of extracting the trichomes from plant matter. Butane gas strips the trichomes from the plant matter, and collects on a dish. The butane is evaporated away, leaving a very high potency oil. Bubble Bags - A method of making hash that separates the trichomes from the plant matter using ice water and gentle agitation. The water is then filtered through bags that contain a fine mesh screen which collects the trichomes. Bud - Refers to the flower of the female Cannabis plant. This is the part of the plant that is harvested, cured and smoked for the psychoactive effect of the THC contained in the buds resin glands (trichomes). Bud Leaves - *See Trim Leaves Burn (Nutrient Burn) - Damage caused to plants by too much salt build up around their roots, salt build up is usually caused by providing excessive levels of nutrients. Calyx - The round, outer portion of a female plants sex organ, usually has two pistils coming out of one calyx. Cambium - Plant tissue. A cylindrical layer of cells in plant roots and stems that produces the new tissue responsible for increased girth, particularly sap-conducting tissues, xylem, phloem and bark. Cannabinoid - An organic chemical substance belonging to a group that comprises the active constituents of cannabis. The three main cannabinoids are: THC, CBD and CBN. Cannabis Resin - Cannabis in the form of a greenish black resin. Canopy - The uppermost layer of vegetation. Carbon Dioxide - A heavy colourless odorless atmospheric gas (CO2). Can be used to increase plant growth, by adding CO2 to the growing environment so that it’s at a higher-than-normal concentration is said to benefit the plant. Many growers will tell you there is no need to add CO2 to your grow as the plants get all they need from the atmosphere, provided you have good ventilation. Carbon Filter - A method of deodorizing air coming from, or inside, a room by passing the air through a layer of activated carbon that absorbs and eliminates odors. CBD (Cannabidiol) A cannabinoid found in Cannabis. It is a major constituent of the plant, representing up to 40% in its extracts. CBD alone is not intoxicating, but it appears to moderate the euphoric effect of THC (which is an isomer of cannabidiol) and add a sedative quality. Some research, however, indicates that CBD can increase alertness. It may decrease the rate of THC clearance from the body, perhaps by interfering with the metabolism of THC in the liver. CBD does not appear to affect either the CB1 or CB2 receptors. Medically, it appears to relieve convulsion, inflammation, anxiety, and nausea, and may inhibit cancer cell growth. Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia. In November 2007 it was reported that CBD reduces growth of aggressive human breast cancer cells in vitro and reduces their invasiveness. It thus represents the first non-toxic exogenous agent that can lead to down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness. It is also a neuroprotective antioxidant. CBN (Cannabinol) - A non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis. It is an oxidation product of THC. It binds both to CB1 and CB2 receptors but with a lower affinity than THC. CFL (Compact Fluorescent Light) - A fluorescent light about the size of a standard incandescent light bulb that can be used in any standard light socket. Used most often for starting seeds, clones, and in micro grow applications. Note that the wattage to go by is the actual wattage, not the equivalent wattage. E.g: A 42 watt CFL that says equivalent to 150 watt incandescent would be counted as 42 watts, not 150. CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) - Usually used to measure how much air can be moved by a fan per minute. *Other measurements include: CFH = Cubic Feet per Hour, CMM = Cubic Metres per Minute, CMH = Cubic Metres per Hour, LPH = Litres per Hour, LPM = Litres per Minute, LPS = Litres per Second. Chemical Nutrients - Nutrients that are synthetic. They're not natural like organic nutrients, and tend to more easily *burn* your plants. *See; Burn* Chlorophyll - The green pigment in plants that captures the light energy required for photosynthesis. It is what makes leaves green. Chlorosis - The yellowing of normally green tissues due to the destruction of the chlorophyll or the partial failure of the chlorophyll to develop. Chromosome (Chromosomes) - A rod-shaped structure, usually found in pairs in a cell nucleus, that carries the genes that determine sex and the characteristics an organism inherits from its parents. Clone (Cutting) - A branch or shoot of a plant that has been removed and rooted independently, producing a new plant with the exact genetics makeup (DNA) of the plant it was taken from. CO2 - *See Carbon Dioxide* Coco (Coco Coir) - Similar to Soil-less, utilizing the hairy bark of coconuts as the growing medium, growing in pure Coco requires specialist nutrients specifically made for growing with Coco as the medium. Cola - Refers to the main branch of Cannabis flowers located at the top of the stem. The ‘correct’ term for this is a raceme: A flower cluster inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on short stalks along a long main stem. Cool Tube - Air is drawn through a glass tube that surrounds a high intensity discharge bulb to remove the heat generated by the bulb. Corolla - The petals of a flower collectively, forming a ring around the reproductive organs and surrounded by an outer ring of sepals. Cotyledons - The small, round first leaves of a seedling. These leaves provide the first nutrients for the plant. As a natural course, these leaves will yellow and fall off. When the cotyledons start yellowing it is a good indicator that it's safe to begin feeding with a light nutrient solution. Curing - Allowing the buds to mature, much like you would a fine wine. This aging process often makes the bud smoke smoother and taste different to when it was fresh, most will say it makes it better. *Also see Water Curing* Cutting - *See Clone* Decarboxylation - This occurs after buds are harvested, during the curing process. The THC loses a CO2 molecule, which then makes the THC psychoactive. This process is why drying and curing buds after harvest is crucial to the high that the bud produces. Dieback - The progressive death of branches or shoots beginning at the tips and moving toward the main stem. D.I.Y (DIY) - D.I.Y = Do It Yourself. The activity of doing repairs and alterations yourself, in your own home, instead of employing tradespeople to do the work. Dominant (Dominant Gene) - Describes a gene that causes a parental characteristic it controls to occur in any offspring, or describes the characteristic itself. DWC (Deep Water Culture) Also RDWC & MDWC - A style of hydroponic growing that utilizes a deep reservoir of nutrient solution aerated by an airstone. The plant rests in a netpot, filled with hydroton or another inert media. The roots grow through the netpot into the nutrients below, allowing for very large root systems. RDWC connects the buckets in a continuous system with a pump and an additional reservoir, known as a Recirculating DWC. MDWC refers to either Mediumless or Modified DWC. Mediumless refers to using a collar instead of a medium filled netpot to hold the plant in place over the nutrient solution. Modified means the basic DWC design has been modified, and will likely be explained in the post. Also known as Bubblers, Bubbler/Bubbling Buckets, and Tubblers; the use of Rubbermaid style storage tubs instead of buckets. Often used inScrOG grows. E&F (Ebb and Flow) - A hydroponic style of growing that utilizes tables, a shallow pan or table for the plants and medium, and a seperate reservoir of nutrient solution. Using a pump connected to a timer, the nutrient solution is pumped into the table until it fills, then allowed to drain. The 'flood' of nutrients soaks the roots and medium, then 'ebbs' back into the reservoir, allowing the roots a chance to dry out and breathe. EC (Electrical Conductivity) - Measurement of the amount of nutrients in a solution. (May be expressed in multiple values (PPM, TDS, EC - consult your meters manual) Epidermis - The outermost layer of cells of a plant. Fan Leaves - These are the large leaves that grow off of branches, and while not rich in THC, they play an important role in photosynthesis. They usually have 5 - 14 fingers per leaf. Feminized Seeds - Seeds that have been created through the use of hermaphrodite pollen, instead of male pollen, resulting in seeds with no male genetics, resulting in all female plants. However, feminized seeds are generally seen as more prone to become hermaphrodites as they carry hermaphrodite genetics. Fertilizer - A synthetic or organic substance used to provide plants with the required nutrients for vegetative growth, development and flowering. FIM (Fimming) - Stands for 'F#!k I missed' Cutting, or pinching out with your fingers, the tiny growth shoot of a plant so that it grows into multiple branches instead of one. Often surrounding leaves will be damaged when doing this, but that should not hinder the plant. Fish Emulsion - This is a water soluble, organic liquid fertilizer and thus, immediately available to plants. It has many beneficial properties, especially for growers who like to grow organically. Flowering - The growth phase of a plant that occurs after the vegetative phase (if the plant is put through a vegetative phase), the photoperiod is set to 12/12 with light from the red part of the light spectrum, such as the light provided by High Pressure Sodium (HPS) bulbs. Of course the photoperiod connot be controlled when growing outdoors, making this a naturally occurring process. Flush - The process of removing nutrients from your plants. In soil this is achieved by running plain water through the soil (usually double your soil volume). In hydro, it is achieved by removing the nutrient solution and replacing it with plain water, usually for the last 7 to 14 days (1 to 2 weeks) of flowering. Flushing - *See Flush* FMCD (Full Melt Clear Dome) - A way of judging the purity of a hash or other extract product based on the way it melts and bubbles when lit. Full Melt Clear Dome means the material completely melts into a bubble that is clear when it forms, showing an extremely pure sample. Foliar Feeding - The application of a nutrient solution to the leaves and above ground portions of the plant, as opposed to the roots. Is the quickest way to get nutrients into a plant in small proportions, and is therefore often used to spray on nutrient solutions containing the required nutrients to cure a deficiency the plant has. Force Flowering (Sometimes called FF ... But only by strange people - Giving a Cannabis plant a photoperiod of 12/12 (light/dark) to force the plant into producing flowers (bud). Fungicide - A substance used to destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi. Gene (Genes) - The basic unit capable of transmitting characteristics from one generation to the next. It consists of a specific sequence of DNA or RNA that occupies a fixed position locus on a chromosome. Genetics - The genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms. Genotype - The genetic makeup of an organism, as opposed to its physical characteristics; phenotype. Germinate - To start to grow from a seed or spore into a new individual, or cause a seed or spore to do this. GPH (Gallons per Hour) - The rating of a water pumps capacity to move water. Check the pump information carefully, as the GPH falls as your distance from the pump increases. *Also see LPH (Litres per Hour)* Grafting - A piece of living tissue from the shoot of a plant that is joined to the stem and root system of another plant, resulting in the growth of a single plant. Grow Medium - *See Medium* Guano - Fertilizer consisting of dried bird or bat droppings that is rich in nutrients, including urates, oxalates, and phosphates. Harvesting (Harvest) - When referring to Cannabis, this is the process of preparing the plant for further processing and/or storage usually by cutting the plants of at the base. *Further processing involves taking the whole plant, or branches of plant covered in bud, stripping off the fan leaves and cutting back the trim leaves (bud leaves). This process can be done before or after drying, but is often easier to do before drying.* Outdoor growers will often cut down (harvest) their plants quickly and take them away to a private location to be further processed so that they are at the grow site for as little amount of time as possible. Hashish Hash - A purified resin, prepared from the flowering tops of the female cannabis plant, that is smoked or chewed. Hermaphrodite (Hermie, Hermy, Herm) - A plant that has produced flowers of both sex (male and female) on one plant, allowing self-pollination. HID Bulb (High Intensity Discharge Bulb) - HPS, MH or a combination of the two. They generate a lot of heat compared to a standard bulb and have a high lumen output and can usually be bought in Watt ratings of 250, 400, 600 and 1000. Each Watt rating requires a ballast of equal rating to run the bulb. E.g: One 400 Watt HPS Bulb requires one 400 Watt HPS ballast to run it. Hormone - *See Auxin* HPS (High Pressure Sodium) - A type of high intensity discharge lamp used for growing plants indoors. The lamps give off light more in the red part of the light spectrum, often thought to simulate late summer and fall sun. Generally used for flowering plants, but can be used during vegetative growth as well. Humus - a dark-brown organic component of soil that is derived from decomposed plant and animal remains and animal excrement. Humus improves the water-retaining properties of soil, adds nutrients, and makes it more workable. Hybrid - A plant produced from a cross between two plants with different genetic constituents. Hybrids from crosses between crop varieties are often stronger and produce better yields than the original stock. E.g: The Cannabis strain; Super Silver Haze, is a hyrbid of Haze, Skunk and Northern Lights. Hydroponics (Hydro) - A method of growing that does not rely on a nutritional substrate, or growing medium, such as soil. All the nutrition that a plant would normally obtain from the soil is mixed into water in certain concentrations to allow for maximum growth. The plant gets all of the nutrients it needs to grow from the water solution. *Also see DWC, NFT & E&F for more info on growing Hydro* IBL (Inbred Line) - A genetic line that has been stabilized through inbreeding to consistently produce plants with almost identical traits in their offspring (seeds). Indica - A species of Cannabis that is usually associated with shorter, squatter plants with short flowering periods and wider fingers on the leaves. Indicas are usually associated with a narcotic body stone. Internode - The part of a plant stem between two nodes. *Also see Node* ISO (Isopropyl alcohol) - Used to extract trichomes from plant matter. The Isopopyl alcohol strips the trichomes from the plant matter, and is then evaporated away, leaving a high potency oil. Landrace - A genetic line of plants that occurs naturally within a given region, without human influence on their characteristics. Leaching - The removal or loss of excess salts or nutrients from soil. Light Burn - When the heat generated from a light bulb burns the plant. This is most common with HID lights as they generate a lot of heat. Light Schedule - *See photoperiod* Loam - An easily worked fertile soil consisting of a mixture of clay, sand, and silt and sometimes also organic matter. LPH (Litres per Hour) - The rating of a water pumps capacity to move water. Check the pump information carefully, as the LPH falls as your distance from the pump increases. *Also see GPH (Gallons per Hour)* LST (Low Stress Training) - A method of growing that trains the plant to a specific height or shape. The training usually starts young by tying down the branches and growth shoots. Often incorporated in ScrOG grows and usually requires a longer vegetation period. Macronutrients - For a plant, there are nine major elements essential for healthy growth, these are called macronutrients. They are: carbon, hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) (All three of which are derived from air and water), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), and magnesium (Mg) (Which are provided by the growing medium or nutrient soluation). Medium - A soil or soil-less mix used to grow plants. Micronutrients - There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. These are manganese (mn), boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chlorine, cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn). Microorganism (Microorganisms) - A tiny organism such as a virus, protozoan, or bacterium that can only be seen under a microscope. MH (Metal Halide) - A type of high intensity discharge lamp used for growing indoors. The lamps give off a light in the more in the blue/white part of the light spectrum, often thought to simulate the spring and early summer sun. Generally used for vegetating plants, but can be used during flowering as well. Mother (Mother Plant) - A plant selected and kept for its desirable characteristics, chosen by the grower. The mother plant is usually used for cloning and/or breeding purposes. Mutation - A random change in a gene or chromosome resulting in a new trait or characteristic that can be inherited. Mutation can be a source of beneficial genetic variation, or it can be neutral or harmful in effect. N-P-K (NPK) - Refers to the three main nutrients all plants require. The elemental symbol for nitrogen is N, phosphorus P, and potassium K. All three of these elements are essential for plant growth and are considered macronutrients. N, P, and K are the three principal ingredients in most fertilizers. The NPK ratio is shown by three numbers, such as 2-1-1 or 0-3-1 or 7-4-6 that reflect the percentage of each nutrient. Necrosis - The death of cells in a tissue or organ caused by disease or injury. Neem Oil (Neem) - A broad spectrum botanical insecticide, miticide and fungicide treatment derived from the seeds of the neem tree. Can be applied as a foliar spray or a soil drench. NFT (Nutrient Film Technique) - A hydroponic method of growing that allows a thin trickle, or 'film', of nutrient solution to constantly pass the roots to provide nourishment, but not so much that the roots cannot breathe. Node - The location on a plant where branches and new growth are produced. The area between nodes is referred to as the Internode. Nutrient Burn (Nute Burn) - *See Burn* Organic - From all natural sources. No added chemicals or chemical processes involved. Osmosis - The process by which a solvent passes through a semipermeable membrane into a region of greater solute concentration, so as to make the concentrations on the two sides more equal. Over Watering - Providing a plant with too much water, resulting in stress or other problems. Perlite - An additive that aerates the medium, preventing compaction, creating air pockets, and reducing water retention. Is usually in either, medium or coarse grades, and is a white colour, appearing almost like small stones, it's light to lift and easily crushed into powder... No you can't snort it to get high Perpetual Harvest (SOG) - SOG is a term that has been confused a lot with ScOG in recent times, but the SOG method of growing is the name for what was the first written technique to doing a perpetual harvest. ... The perpetual harvest (SOG) technique three separate rooms, one clone room (Usually with CFL or fluro lighting), one vegetative room (Usually with MH lighting), and one flowering room (Usually wiht HPS lighting). A mother plant (as you want equal finishing times e.g all 8 week strains/phenos) is kept in the clone or veg room and clones are taken once a month (in this example we will be saying we're doing a one month cycle), the clones are rooted in the clone room, then moved to the veg room for one month to put on some good growth, a couple weeks before the end of the month, more clones are taken and rooted in the clone room, then at the end of the month the these clones are moved into the veg room and the plants from the veg room are moved into the flowering room, the plants in the veg room are grown out for one month like previously, and clones are taken same as previously, at the end of that month, the new clones are moved to the veg room, the veged plants are moved to the flowering room, and the process is repeated. At this stage you will have some clones being taken and/or rooted, some plants just starting to veg, some plants just starting to flower (having just finished vegging), some plants half way through flowering and some plants ready to harvest. This technique allows a harvest every month, and it's up to you if you use a few plants at a time, or a few thousand. It just depends on how much space and time you have, how much you want and how much jail time you're willing to do pH - Refers to Acidity or Alkalinity of a substance or solution, usually water, nutrient solution or the growing medium. pH is displayed in a range from 1 to 14. *1 is Acidic, 7 is neutral, 14 is Alkaline* Pheno (Phenotype) - Certain unique characteristics of a plant that set it aside from other plants of the same strain. Plants grown from the same seed stock often show unique characteristics like smell, coloring, and flavor. Plants of the same strain showing different characteristics are different phenotypes. Photoperiod - The daily cycle of light and darkness. E.g 18/6, 18 hours of light and 6 hours of dark would be the photoperiod. Photosynthesis - A process by which green plants and other organisms turn carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen, using light energy trapped by chlorophyll. Phototropism - The inclination, which plants have, to grow towards light. Pistil - The white hairlike growth on a female plants bud, usually two can be found protruding from each calyx. R/O (RO Water) - Water that has been filtered of impurities by the Reverse Osmosis method. Pollen - Produced by the male plant to pollinate the female plant so she will produce seeds. Pollinate - To transfer pollen grains from the male structure of a plant anther to the female structure of a plant stigma and fertilize it. Potash - A potassium (K) compound, especially potassium chloride, sulfate, or oxide, used in fertilizers. Potency - The strength of the Cannabis. Usually measured by the THC levels in a plant. PPM (Parts Per Million) - Measurement of the amount of nutrients in a solution. (May be expressed in multiple values (PPM, TDS, EC - consult your meters manual) Pre-Flowers - A flower the plant produces at a node usually whilst still in a vegetative growth stage. These can be examined to determine if the plant is male or female. Pruning - The cutting and trimming of plants to remove dead or injured wood, or to control and direct the new growth of a plant. Psychoactive - Describes drugs or medication having a significant effect on mood or behavior. Regenerate *See Reveg* Relative Humidity (rH, RH) - The ratio of the amount of water vapour in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount air can hold at the same temperature, ir is expressed in a percentage and measured with a hygrometer. E.g: 60% RH Recessive (Recessive Gene) - Used to describe a gene that produces an effect in an organism only when its matching allele is identical. The effect is masked when the matching allele is nonidentical. Resin - *See Cannabis Resin* Resin Gland (Resin Glands) - *See Trichome* Reveg (Revegetation) - Returning a plant to a vegetative state after it has begun, or 'finished' flowering. People sometimes find a strain during flowering that they want to keep, but but don't have any clones (cuttings) of, they reveg the plant after harvest and take clones from the reveged growth to preserve that particular plants genetics in the clone. RH (rH) - Abbreviation for relative humidity. *See Relative Humidity* Rockwool (RW) - A growing medium that comes in cubes or slabs, easily identifiable by its green color and fabric like appearance. Usually used for cuttings, seedlings or in Hydro or Aeroponic systems. Root Ball - The tightly packed mass of roots and soil produced by a plant, especially when grown in a container. Root Bound - A condition that exists when a potted plant has outgrown its container. Roots - The underground part of a vascular plant which serves to anchor it and convey nourishment. Rot - The disintegration, discoloration, and decomposition of plant tissue. Ruderalis - A species of Cannabis, not often heard of, with a short stature, quick to mature and auto-flowering. Ruderalis does not produce a very high yield or high quality flower (bud). Ruderalis spontaneously initiates flowering a few weeks after sprouting, and will not produce decent flowers unless the photoperiod provides around 18 hours of light. Even then, the yield and quality are less than desirable. The Sativa and Indica species are usually grown instead, although Ruderalis has been used in breeding projects to create Sativa and Indica dominant strains with the auto-flowering trait. Rust - A plant disease that gives a ‘rusty’ appearance to an infected surface of the plant. Sativa - A species of Cannabis that is usually associated with taller plants, longer flowering periods and thinner fingers on the leaves. Sativas are usually associated with an up, energetic head high. Scorch - The burning or drying and browning of leaf margins and/or tips. Usually caused by overfeeding, sometimes caused by the heat generated by light bulbs; *See Light Burn* ScrOG (Screen of Green) - A method that utilizes fewer plants trained to grow along a screen (usually made from plastic netting or string) to insure all buds get an equal level of light. Sensimilla - Spanish for 'without seed'. Sensimilla crops are your typical crops in today’s growing world. Having a female plant bud without letting a male plant pollinate it, thereby preventing seeds from forming in the buds. This increases THC production, potency and smokable bud weight. Sepal - a modified leaf in the outermost whorl calyx of a flower that encloses the petals and other parts. Sex - The set of characteristics that determine whether the reproductive role of a plant is male or female. Usually determined by examining pre-flowers or by forcing the plant to produce flowers by providing a photoperiod of 12/12. SI - SI stands for (French) Système International. The International System of Units. Skuff - The sifted resin from the Cannabis flower SOG (Sea of Green) - *See Perpetual Harvest* Soil-less - A method that utilizes pots like a standard soil garden, which can be hand watered or utilize a standard soil irrigation system. The pots are filled with inert medium, usually a mixture of Perlite, Vermiculite and/or Sphagnum Peat Moss, that retains water much like soil. However, all nutrients come in the watering solution, there are none stored in the medium, allowing the grower to have full control over when different nutrients are applied and in what quantity they are provided in. Staking - The practice of driving a stake into the ground next to a plant to use as a support for the plant. Plants can become top heavy, especially during flowering and require a stake to prevent them from falling over and damaging their stem. Stamen - The male reproductive organ of a flower, typically consisting of a stalk filament bearing a pollen-producing anther at its tip. Stigma - the part of a flower's female reproductive organ carpel that receives the male pollen grains. It is generally located at the tip of a slender stalk-shaped projection style. Stipule - Either of a pair of small growths at the base of a leaf stalk or stem that resemble leaves. Stomata - Plural for Stoma. A tiny pore in the outer layer epidermis of a plant leaf or stem that controls the passing of water vapor and other gases into and out of the plant. Strain - A line of ancestry or a group of descendants from a common ancestor. Refers to the specific genetics of the plant. E.g: Haze, Big Bud, White Widow, Northern Lights. Stress - Any unhealthy stimuli the plant receives. E.g: Light-burn, over watering, under watering, nutrient burn. Stress can cause slow growth, mutations, or death. Sun Leaves - *See Fan Leaves* Super-cropping - A method of growing where the stem is lightly crushed, forcing the plant to make new pathways that can result in a higher yield. Temperature (Temp) - The heat of something measured on a scale such as the Fahrenheit or Celsius scale. With reference to growing, it usually refers to temperature of the air in the growing environment or the temperature of the water in a feeding solution or hydro/aeroponic reservoir. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) - Measurement of the amount of nutrients in a solution. (May be expressed in multiple values (PPM, TDS, EC - consult your meters manual) Thinning - Removing some plants, or parts of plants (such as branches and/or leaves) to allow sufficient room for the remaining plants to grow. Topping - Pruning the plant by cutting off the top just above a node, or set of nodes, to encourage lateral branching. Transpiration - The release of moisture through the stomata on the plants leaves. Transplant - The process of moving one plant from it’s medium to another medium, location or into a larger pot size to allow for further growth. Trait - A quality or characteristic that is genetically determined. Trichome (Trich) - A structure on the 'skin' of plant that contains THC and other Cannbinoids found in Cannabis. Trichome Colour - *See Trichome Examination first* The colour of the trichomes can be used to tell when a plant is at the best point to harvest it. Using a jewellers loupe (or similar device), the round 'head' of the trichomes are examined to see which of three colours they are, they will be either Clear (like glass, water or crystal), Greyish White (like water if you add a little bit of milk to it, or other milky, greyish things haha), or Amber (a red/brown sort of tinge to them). If the trichs (trichomes) are generally all clear, I say generally coz you don't want to be examining every one individually, then the plant is not ready for harvest. If the trichs are generally all Grey-White, then the plant is at the optimum point to harvest. If the trichs are generally all Amber, then the plant is a bit past the optimum point of harvest. Usually you will get a combination of the three colours, this can be used to slightly influence the effect of the final product (Bud). If you harvest when the trichs are 50% Clear,/50% Grey-White, the buzz will be a bit more 'heady' and high, or cerebral. If you harvest when the trichs are 50% Grey-White/50% Amber, the buzz will be more of a body stone. *Note: Clear trichs mean the THC is still accumulating, Grey-White trichs mean the THC is nearly at it's peak, and Amber trichs mean the THC has peaked and is now beginning to breakdown and become less psychoactive* Trichome Examination (Trichome Inspection) - A newer, more accurate technique of determining when a plant is ready for harvest. The process of examining the trichomes of a flowering cannabis plant with a strong magnifying glass, jewellers loupe or mini-microscope, usually with a 30x-50x (times) magnifying capability in order to determine if the plant is ready for harvest by the trichome colour. *See Trichome Colour* Trim - The collected and dried trim leaves of a cola, once they have been cut away from the main bud. This is often kept as a ‘backup’ smoke, as it is slightly less potent than the bud itself, but still highly potent. Trim Leaves - The small leaves that grow in the buds of the plant, usually covered in trichomes when harvested. Under Watering - Not providing enough water to a plant resulting in the plant wilting or having other stress problems. Vascular - Refers to the xylem and phloem tissues (sap-carrying vessels), which conduct water, minerals and nutrients through the plant body. Vegetative Growth (Veg, Veging, Vegging) - The growth phase of a plant that occurs before flowering and after the seedling stage, usually under an 18/6 photoperiod with light from the blue/white part of the light spectrum, such as the light provided by Metal Halide (MH) bulbs. Of course the photoperiod connot be controlled when growing outdoors, making this a naturally occurring process. Ventilation - The movement or circulation of fresh air. Circulating air in order to provide the plant with fresh air and/or to reduce the temperature in the grow area. Air movement also encourages strong stems. Vermicompost Vermicomposting - The end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by some species of earthworm. Vermicompost is a nutrient-rich, organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. The process of producing vermicompost is called vermicomposting. Also called: Worm Castings, Worm Compost, Vermicast, Worm Humus or Worm Manure Vermiculite - An additive that helps retain water and aerate the medium. It's brownish, gold in colour and is soft almost like a sponge to the touch. Volt (Volts) - The unit of electromotive force and electric potential difference equal to the difference between two points in a circuit carrying one ampere of current and dissipating one watt of power. The symbol for volt is V. Water Curing (Water Cure) - The process of curing bud using water before drying it. This is done by getting a jar (or tub for large quantities) of cold water (preferably distilled, but not necessary) and completely submerging your freshly cut harvest in the water (before drying it), it is kept in the water generally for 7 days, replacing the water with fresh water every 12-24 hours. After the 7 days the bud is removed from the water and hung to dry as normal. Strangely the bud tends to dry faster than it would if harvested and air dried like normal. The bud usually turns a brownish colour when water curing and the taste is often altered (some say it taste better, some say worse, some say it barely tastes at all). It is usually smoother to smoke and does not smell like 'normal' Cannabis. Infact when mixed with tobacco and smoked people usually will just smell the tobacco and not notice the Cannabis at all, making it great for when you go to the pub or just want to have a smoke while you walk down the street. *Note: some strains do not react well to water curing, they may turn mushy. I recommend you try it with a small amount first to see if the particular strain you're growing reacts well to it, and also to see if you like the slightly 'different' effect it has on the final product* Watering Schedule - A term referring to how often and how much water a plant is given, usually measured in days and Litres or Gallons. E.g: 4 Litres, once every 4 days. 1 Gallon every 3 days. Watt - A unit of electrical power, the symbol for Watt is W. Wilt - When a plant droops, or shrivels, through lack of water, too much heat, fungus, or disease. Worm Castings - .*See Vermicompost* Xylem - The woody supportive plant tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots through the stem and leaves of the plant. Cheers!