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breeding seeds

Discussion in 'General Marijuana Growing' started by Jester88, Mar 18, 2009.


    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    Ehy... well as the topic says heres a few things i found on breeding thought you guys may like.. please feel free to add to this :)

    How should strains be named?

    In the horticultural world, the order of naming in hybrids should be Female X Male. Many breeders and retailers practice improper naming protocol. I have seen too many obvious discrepencies in commercial Cannabis naming practices to give any validity to the standard protocol as a way to determine the parentage. Breeders and retailers should correct this.

    When choosing a name for your prize breeding project, it is important to be original and not be confusing. Unfortunately, some seed breeders are using names for their newer and different offerings already taken by strains currently held by other seedbanks. This is definitely something that is deceptive and troublesome. Introducing a different strain under another, now famous name appears to be an attempt to ride on their coattails. It is terribly confusing and misleading to the consumer for another company in the same market to decide to use the same name for a newer and different product. What if VW decided their new sports car was going to be called a Corvette because they are based in Europe and they like the name? They have lawyers for this.
    Added on: Sunday, October 1, 2006 Viewed: 2493 times

    thanks rollitup. this was from the growfaq

    Breeding marijuana

    It is possible to breed and select cuttings from plants that grow, flower, and mature faster. Some plants will naturally be better than others in this regard, and it is easy to select not only the most potent plants to clone or breed, but the fastest growing/flowering plants as well. Find your fastest growth plant, and breed it with your "best high" male for fast flowering, potent strains. Clone your fastest, best high plant for the quickest monocrop garden possible. Over time, it will save you a lot of waiting around for your plants to mature.When a male is starting to flower (2-4 weeks before the females) it should be removed from the females so it does not pollinate them. It is taken to a separate area. Any place that gets just a few hours of light per day will be adequate, including close to a window in a separate room in the house. Put newspaper or glass under it to catch the pollen as the flowers drop it.Keep a male alive indefinitely by bending the top severely and putting it in mild shock that delays it is maturity. Or take the tops as they mature and put the branches in water, over a piece of plate glass. Shake the branches every morning to release pollen onto the glass and then scrap it with a razor blade to collect it. A male pruned in this fashion stays alive indefinately and will continue to produce flowers if it gets suitable dark periods. This is much better than putting pollen in the freezer! Fresh pollen is always best.When breeding marijuana save pollen in an air tight bag in the freezer. It will be good for about a month. It may be several more weeks before the females are ready to pollinate. Put a paper towel in the bag with it to act as a desecant.A plant is ready to pollinate 2 weeks after the clusters of female flowers first appear. If you pollinate too early, it may not work. Wait until the female flowers are well established, but still all while hairs are showing.Turn off all fans. Use a paper bag to pollinate a branch of a female plant. Use different pollen from two males on separate branches. Wrap the bag around the branch and seal it at the opening to the branch. Shake the branch vigorously. Wet the paper bag after a few minutes with a sprayer and then carefully remove it. Large plastic zip-lock bags also. Slip the bag over the male branch and shake the pollen loose. Carefully remove the bad and zip it up. It should be very dusty with pollen. To pollinate, place it over a single branch of the female, zipping it up sideways around the stem so no pollen leaks out. Shake the bag and the stem at the same time. Allow to settle for an hour or two and shake it again. Remove it a few hours later. Your branch is now well pollinated and should show signs of visible seed production in 2 weeks, with ripe seeds splitting the calyxes by 3-6 weeks. One pollinated branch can create hundreds of seeds, so it should not be necessary to pollinate more than one or two branches in many cases.When crossing two different varieties, a third variety of plant will be created. If you know what characteristics your looking for in a new strain, you will need several plants to choose from in order to have the best chance of finding all the qualities desired. Sometimes, if the two plants bred had dominant genes for certain characteristics, it will be impossible to get the plant you want from one single cross. In this case, it is necessary to interbreed two plants from the same batch of resultant seeds from the initial cross. In this fashion, recesive genes will become available, and the plant character you desire may only be possible in this manner.Usually breeding marijuana, it is desirable only to cross two strains that are very different. In this manner, one usually arrives at what is refered to as "hybrid vigor". In other words, often the best strains are created by taking two very different strains and mating them. Less robust plants may be the result of interbreeding, since it opens up recesive gene traits that may lead to reduced potency.Hybrid offspring will all be very different from each other. Each plant grown from the same batch of seeds collected from the same plant, will be different. It is then necessary to try each plant separately and decide it is individual merits for yourself. If you find one that seems to be head and shoulders above the rest in terms of early flowering, high yield and get buzz, that is the plant to clone and continue breeding.In depth genetics is beyond the scope of this work. See marijuana Botany; Smith, for more detailed info in this area.bibliography - weedfarmer.com/growing_guide/breeding.php

    courtesy ofhttp://www.greenmanspage.com/guides/breeding.html


    Perhaps the most important aspect to consider in the breeding of fine quality cannabis is that of selection. Selective breeding is where all of today's varieties evolved from.
    In the past, this chore was made easier by the fact that most of the commercially available herb was seeded and imported from outdoor plantations, usually near-equatorial in origin. These "land-race" Sativa varieties were the building blocks of the burgeoning domestic productions of the times.
    The Indica (Afghan, Kush, Skunk, etc.) genetics were specially imported by West Coast interests and available to the general public around 1978. It was shortly after this time that the variance of domestic cannabis increased exponentially, as people began experimenting with crossing these two different types of pot.
    Beginning breeding
    The typical way to begin a breeding program is to carefully select P1 parents of pure Sativa and pure Indica, crossing them to produce an f1 hybrid that is uniform in its phenotypic growth patterns. The next step is the crossing of the f1 type with itself, which produces a very wide variation witnessed in the f2 growth patterns and expressions.
    It is in this f2 second-generational cross and beyond that the art of selection really comes into play. There are a number of factors to consider at this point, such as what the male and female will each contribute; and most of all, what will the overall quality of the finished product be like?
    Defining a goal and constructing a plan to accomplish it is called "top-down" programming, and this "top-down" approach applies well to cannabis breeding. It helps considerably to have a specific goal in mind when attempting to selectively breed a variety of ganja. This simple fact I cannot emphasize enough.
    One must at least have an idea of what one is aiming for before beginning. For me this has little to do with plant structure and much to do with the quality of the finished product, no matter what form it is in. Having an experienced and educated palate (both mentally aesthetic and physically discernable) is key in the art of breeding fine quality cannabis.
    The "goal" at the center of most of my breeding targets would be to replicate, as near as possible, the experiences produced by the great land-race varieties of old: Highland Oaxacan or Thai, Santa Marta or Acapulco Gold, Guerrero Green, Panama Red or Hawaiian Sativa? or the hash from regions such as Lebanon, Afghanistan or Nepal.
    The indoor grow environment is too generic to fully replicate the great old legends. Therefore, it was necessary to settle for the next best thing: happy Sativa/Indica crosses that would perform well indoors. (It is interesting to note here that most of the fine land-race Sativa were hermaphroditic, though sometimes only minimally.)
    Outdoor Australian Sativa; inset: seeded bud
    Selection process
    Obviously, you seek the parents that will produce the desired progeny. Paradoxically, this process requires selecting the best after they've been harvested. The solution is to keep samples from each plant of a test crop. This can be done via rooted clones from earlier cuttings, or re-greened mothers and fathers kept in a vegetative state and a high-nitrogen diet. Once you have chosen among the harvested plants, you can use the rooted cuttings for future consideration and possible breeding.
    Pollen may also be gathered and immediately stored via vacuum sealing and deep-freezing. It is crucial to vacuum seal and freeze pollen immediately after it is collected and to use stored pollen immediately after it thaws. Dry seeds also store well over indefinite periods of time in an undisturbed deep-freeze, with some desiccant.
    This process of post-harvest selection works fine for selecting desired female plants. But what about males? What is the best and most simple way to select males for breeding? Due to the fact that it is the female plants that we are ultimately familiar with, selecting males is a bit more involved.
    The process is basically the same as it is with female plants, except with males the numbers are first limited down via a process of elimination, and selections made by comparing the remainder. Selecting males also takes a little more time initially as the quality of the male is not fully determined until after the seeds it produces are grown out and tested. As one becomes more familiar with a particular strain, the specific characteristics of the desirable males become apparent.
    Ideally, the more seeds one starts with the better. This is, after all, a numbers game. I will assume that any basic breeding project starts with at least 20 different plants, from 20 viable seeds of high quality, professionally stabilized varieties. This would give a minimum of 10 male and 10 female plants hopefully sexed by two weeks into a flowering light cycle (short day/long night).
    Once sexed, the process of elimination may begin. All of the females are kept and regularly examined to prevent unwanted hermaphroditism. Unwanted males and all hermaphrodites must be eliminated before they begin to shed pollen ? usually by the third week in the flowering cycle. The female plants need to be checked for hermaphroditism until harvest.
    (A quick word on "backward" hermaphrodites ? declared males that eventually sport female flowers ? as opposed to the usual female-to-male hermaphrodites. These are semi-rare occurrences, usually sterile but sometimes viable, that I have found at times to be valuable in their genetic contributions. Some of the most resinous and desirable males I have encountered exhibited this trait. This trait almost seems to guarantee against unwanted hermaphroditism in subsequent generations as it also increases the female to male ratio in its progeny.)
    A word needs to be said about the not-too-common probabilities of what I generally refer to as a recessive combination phenomenon. Sometimes, though not often, two parents that appear to express a common desirable trait ? let's say a sweet/fruity bouquet ? are crossed and the progeny do not express the desirable trait.
    This usually means that one or both parents possessed some sort of recessive alleles in their genotype for this characteristic. But it could also mean that the progeny had a different environment that the parents.
    If environment can be ruled out then it is likely that some sort of a genetic recessive combination is the cause. If none of the progeny express the desired characteristic one may want to cross the progeny with itself and see what the outcome is.
    If a common "Punnet ratio" such as 25% of a progeny express the desirable trait, then the trait is more than likely recessive and the trait may be stabilized via crossing any two of the 25% (or whatever common ratio) that show the desired trait with each other. This process is time consuming and is generally followed only if no other alternatives exist.
    Male plants showing their sex.
    Selecting males
    I prefer to remove all of the males from the grow-room to a separate, isolated space shortly after they declare their sex and well before they begin to shed pollen. A small space lit with simple fluorescent light will suffice for the males for the next few weeks. During this time the female buds will fatten with more flowers while your collection of males is selected down.
    I generally employ a simple process of elimination while selecting males. First, any auto-flowering or very early-declared males are eliminated. (Auto-flowering means that male flowers form regardless of light cycle timing.) This is mainly to insure against hermaphroditism or unwanted flowering traits, but also as a means to insure quality. The very early declared males have a tendency to be less desirable in terms of their contributions to the quality of the finished product. (If you are trying to specifically create an early-flowering strain, then your priorities may be different.)
    Next, any male plant that grows too tall or too fast is usually eliminated. The reason for this is that most plants which dedicate so much energy to fiber production generally are best for making fiber. The exception to this rule is when an over-productive plant also exhibits a number of the desirable characteristics mentioned later.
    The next criteria for elimination is borrowed from Michael Starks' book, marijuana Potency, and involves stem structure. Large, hollow main stems are sought while pith-filled stems are eliminated. Backed by years of observation, I agree that hollow stems do seem to facilitate THC production.
    Another consideration is the type of floral clusters that develop. Even on males, clusters which are tight, compact and yet very productive are desired over an airy, loose structure. These observations are most notable in the indoor environment. Outdoors, the differences in stem and floral structures are more difficult to discern.
    The next and perhaps most important characteristic to examine is that of odor, flavor and trichome development. Again, the females will prove themselves by their finished product, but the males are a bit trickier.
    I usually begin with a Sativa female and an Indica male. It has been my observation that the females primarily contribute the type of flavor and aroma and the males contribute the amount of flavor and odor. The "Sativa/Indica" aspects of this formula are mainly apparent in the P1 or very early filial crosses (to about f3). Beyond the f3 generation the apparent "Sativa/Indica" ratio in a given individual is less important than the odor/flavor and trichome development aspects it exhibits. Therefore, one of the main aspects to consider when selecting a male is the depth of its aroma and flavor. (If you are seeking to develop a low-odor indoor strain you might wish to begin with a low-odor Sativa male and an Indica female.)
    With the remaining males I usually employ an odor/flavor test. Using males at least two or three weeks into the flowering cycle (and preferably beyond if a separate, isolated space is being used), a sort of "scratch-and-sniff" technique is first employed. With clean, odor-free fingers, gently rub one plant at a time, on the stem where it is well developed and pliable, above the woody part and below the developing top (approximately at the spot where a clone would be cut). The newer leaves at their halfway point of development may also be rubbed and sniffed.
    These are the places that the earliest chemical signatures of a developing plant present themselves, and it is our intent to gently disturb these chemicals and inspire an odor/flavor reaction on the fingers and on the plant. By examining these various aromas in this way one may be able to determine certain desirable (and also undesirable) characteristics. After clearing one's palate and refreshing one's fingers, another plant may be tested.
    The finalists are best compared for at least a week and at different times of day, to determine who performs best over a period of time.
    A few of the "good" aromas which I have found to be associated with both male and female high quality cannabis are: sweet, floral, fruity, berry, wine/brandy, other savory spirits, skunky and spearmint. Some of the "bad" aromas associated with both male and female cannabis are: grassy, chlorophyll (green), celery, parsley, carrots, cinnamon, pepper-mint or wintergreen, gear-oil and gasoline. Some of the aromas that are considered "good" from females but not necessarily from males are: woody, cedar, pine, citrus, tropical fruit, chocolate, vanilla, coffee, garlic and astringent.
    Worldwide weed
    It is sad that due to the Unfortunate State of Assholes in the world today we herbalists are treated criminally. Sad because given saner times we would be able to produce vast amounts of fine quality herb by virtue of no more than the great outdoors, large numbered populations and trial and error.
    Someday perhaps, but in the meantime I have few alternate suggestions. Holland, Denmark, Switzerland, Spain and other parts of Europe are opening up more and more toward herbal tolerance. It is relatively easy in these places to score some high quality product.
    It is advisable for the newbie to a scene to buy many small samples of herbals at first until one finds what one likes. Just like in any other travel situation, special surprises await those willing to venture out from the centralized tourist areas (except in Christiania where "one stop shopping" is greatly enjoyed).
    I am willing to bet that some of the many herbal "sweet spots" around the globe may once again be producing their specialties. I am eager to verify any rumor of such possibilities. These sweet spots would include many equatorial and near equatorial regions such as Colombia, Highland Mexico, parts of Thailand, Burma and Bhutan to name a few. Places such as Nepal and Jamaica have been ideal for herbal expeditions as well. These are some of the places one could venture in search of educating one's herbal palate and expanding one's experience. n
    Constant testing
    After selections are made, it is also necessary to remember to test for these qualities across a number of clone generations. Do the desirable characteristics present in a new plant (from seed) persist through the following clone generations of that plant? Does the plant from clones of the original carry the same odor/flavor quality? The same potency? Overall desirability? The answers most definitely need to be "yes" if that individual is to be considered for future breeding.
    With much practice and years of experience it becomes apparent to those with a sensitive palate which individuals possess the most desirable characteristics from a given sample.
    I suggest that your taste and smell be augmented with the use of an illuminated magnifier, either 30X, 60X or 100X power
    will do.
    Look at the same aforementioned spot on the stem or developing leaves any time after the second week in the bud cycle and look for the greatest abundance of developing trichomes or secretory hairs (hairs that secrete fluid obvious at 30X and above magnification). More fully developed trichomes with very clear heads are generally the most desirable.
    These observations need to be done over a period of time (that is, not just a one-time look) and at different times of the day to determine which individuals perform best. Many various phenomena become apparent to those who are able to pay close attention over a period of time. To that effect I suggest you compile and composite detailed notes on one's observations, and to compare those notes over time. Detailed, comprehensive notes are the hallmark of any successful breeding program.
    It is possible to test males by smoking or otherwise consuming them. This practice may be somewhat beneficial to beginners as it does involve a sort of obvious discretion. I suggest using only fresh tips, properly cured and rolled into a joint. Also, make sure that this test smoke is the first smoke one consumes in a day in order to best discern its qualities, or lack thereof.
    Male plants showing their sex.
    Some other aspects to consider
    There are a number of aesthetic considerations to consider regarding fine quality cannabis breeding, such as color, overall structure, growth patterns and various bouquets. My primary goal involves finding the finished product with the most desirable and pleasant effects. So I focus on those aspects and stabilize them first. Once stabilized, a backcross or a cross to another variety may be utilized to further improve the line and/or increase vigor, if necessary.
    On the experimental level the finished product is expected to be either pleasant or powerful, depending on the individual. I prefer an herb that is pleasantly powerful or powerfully pleasant! So that is the sought-after goal. The range of experiences elicited by cannabis can vary from bliss to panic to stupefying. I much prefer the bliss aspects.
    The best descriptive dichotomy in this case would be comfort vs. discomfort. I also suppose some personality types may enjoy a more exciting experience ? perhaps only once in awhile ? a feeling somewhat akin to the entertainment of a roller coaster ride or a horror movie.
    Cannabis is unusual in its varying effects on our vascular-circulatory system. Some cannabis strains seem to act as a vasodilator and others as a vasoconstrictor. A vasoconstrictor is a substance that constricts blood vessels. It tends to elicit tension, excitement, anxiety, and even panic. A vasodilator is a substance that dilates blood vessels and tends to relax a person more easily into a blissful state. Therefore, I tend to prefer cannabis that seems to act as a vasodilator, simply not to the point of couch lock sedation.
    I have nothing against powerfully stony herb. It is just that as long as my breeding space is limited, I will choose to work with the more pleasant varieties ? those that elicit a generally happy experience. Someday I look forward to working at stabilizing many different varieties of herb. After all, to each their own.
    Tinnitus and dyskinesia are common symptoms of a vasoconstrictor reaction. Tinnitus is ringing in the ears, and dyskinesia, in this instance, is usually felt as a tingling in the extremities, especially the little fingers, toes and ears. Another bad sign would be any form of tension headache or unwanted body load. If these symptoms occur regularly after indulging in a particular herb, the herb may be contributing to the sensation.
    Does it pass the acid test?
    To borrow and paraphrase a disclaimer from Dr Hunter S Thompson; "I cannot condone drug usage, but I must admit it has worked well for me." In particular, the psychedelics (entheogens, entactogens, and hallucinogens included) are paramount as a testing tool when breeding fine quality cannabis.
    A favored testing formula of mine involves preparations being made days in advance. One needs to have a perfectly cured sample of the herb one wishes to test ready at hand before the test. Fasting (from substances primarily, but also some foods) and cleansing (exercise, sweating or sauna, re-hydration and meditation, etc.) are employed for a period prior to the test. This is to as fully as possible re-calibrate one's baseline state of consciousness to its most basic, clean state.
    A time is selected, a toast made and the trip material is ingested. I generally like to eat a simple meal of soup or juice and bread after I ingest a substance and before I begin to alert (first noticing the effect of a substance).
    Do not ingest any herb, or any other consciousness-altering substance until after one has alerted, preferably prior to the peak of the trip. Ingest only a small amount of the herb to be tested at first, one toke at a time, unless this is a follow-up test and one is already familiar with the experience.
    Ideally, the psychedelic substance will further the range of noticeable subtleties by one's psyche and allow a broader appreciation of the effect from the herb. An herb that is truly powerful and pleasant will usually profoundly express its experience upon the opened mind. That is, if the herb is truly blissful it will become more readily apparent under such psychedelic examination. Likewise, if the herb is somewhat "panicky" or "anxious" in experience, the psychedelic will exacerbate these qualities as well.
    I am assuming, and offering fair warning, that those who attempt such a test are well-experienced psychic travelers. That is, all necessary considerations of set and setting must be satisfied before attempting such a trial. The psychedelic substance almost seems to act as a sort of mental catalyst when combined with herb. This combination is able to cause both desirable and undesirable traits of the herb experience to become more so apparent to the initiated mind.
    These are some of the techniques, selections and considerations that I employ when breeding fine quality cannabis. Famed horticulturist Luther Burbank's quote: "select the best and reject all others" is the single most important aspect to consider.
    With time, focus and patience the knack for recognizing desirable and undesirable traits becomes more apparent. Having an open and curious mind, along with a developed sense of intuition, is beneficial.
    May your ventures be fruitful.
    Male plants showing their sex.
    A word needs to be said about the not-too-common probabilities of what I generally refer to as a recessive combination phenomenon. Sometimes, though not often, two parents that appear to express a common desirable trait ? let's say a sweet/fruity bouquet ? are crossed and the progeny do not express the desirable trait.
    This usually means that one or both parents possessed some sort of recessive alleles in their genotype for this characteristic. But it could also mean that the progeny had a different environment that the parents.
    If environment can be ruled out then it is likely that some sort of a genetic recessive combination is the cause. If none of the progeny express the desired characteristic one may want to cross the progeny with itself and see what the outcome is.
    If a common "Punnet ratio" such as 25% of a progeny express the desirable trait, then the trait is more than likely recessive and the trait may be stabilized via crossing any two of the 25% (or whatever common ratio) that show the desired trait with each other. This process is time consuming and is generally followed only if no other alternatives exist.[​IMG]
    Male plants showing their sex.

    Male plants showing their sex.
    Ganja Godesses
    One of the things I learned a long time ago was that something more than genetics or biological environment plays a role in the desirability of herb. During the 70's and 80's, as the number of growers proliferated, it became apparent to those privy to the info that a grower's personal vibe somehow became part of the plant's vibe.
    Generally speaking, mellow, laid-back growers tended to produce mellow, laid-back herb, whereas uptight, sinister growers tended to produce uptight, sinister herb. Perhaps it was just the vibe of the grower following the product to market expressing itself along the chain of trade, I am not certain, nor do I believe any form of scientific observation will ever confirm such a debate. It has simply been one of those givens in the trade. In that regard, I have further noticed that much of the finest domestic herb I've encountered was grown by women.
    I used to call it the "Great Pumpkin" effect, but perhaps it is better termed the "Ganja Goddess" effect. The most sincere herbal patches being visited upon by the subtle and ethereal spirits of benevolence. And subtle is a very key word when considering the desirable characteristics of fine quality cannabis. Subtleties have a way of being very powerful, indeed. While we are considering such aesthetic topics let's have a look at femininity. It is, after all, the female plant we are primarily concerned with.
    Male plants showing their sex.
    One of the most profound aspects of the cannabis experience for me is its ability to act as a counter-balance to my personal, male-dominance syndrome.
    Cannabis allows me a reprieve from the otherwise distracting male-conditioned response of attempting to dominate my environment. My conditioning of aggressive competitiveness is temporarily quelled, and I am allowed to experience reality in a much more non-linear relationship. The routine desire to compete and conquer is replaced with a sense of cooperation and community. In a word, I have learned to become a feminist.
    By "feminist" I mean the protected right to be feminine, cooperative, community-centered and globally concerned, able and free to discern subtleties, intuitive and submissive without the fear of dominator conquest and control. The fine quality cannabis experience allows me to better understand, accept, and serve fate.
    One of the things I have learned about "us" (the cooperators) and "them" (the dominators) is that they need us much more than we need them. This is one fact that I wish very much for our community to realize. Toward realizing that end, I have found the finest quality cannabis to be an invaluable resource.

    courtesy of


    Hello...im no expert but have done many femininized seed runs with great success...I sts my females which is sodium thiosulphate solution...you dilute silver nitrate and sodium thiosulphate (anyhydrous) and mix them up and spray your target plant or donor plant once and wait a week or 2 if no ballbags you can spray again but it may take longer to drop pollen if you spray twice....there will be variation but that should be expected to some degree....you will have to search for the actual recipe on mixing as they are not in front of me...FET was the originator of this method I believe so you may want to check over at HG..I know its there....this works great for my situation...hope this made sense to you and maybe it will help you along the right path...good luck
    take care

    a post i found



    Here’s an easy, environmentally friendly method for breeding feminized seeds.

    by SOMA
    Wed, Jul 30, 2003 12:00 am
    more: grow articles, soma, breeding, seed company, strains

    Story by Soma
    Creating feminized cannabis seeds is an art. Just like art, there are a few different methods of application. I have written about some of my different methods of making seeds in previous HIGH TIMES articles. I have used gibberellic acid, pH stress, light stress, and fertilizer stress to force my female plants to make seeds. All of these methods are harsh on the plants, and some, like the gibberellic acid, are not organic. In my search for cleaner, more earth-friendly ways of working with the cannabis plant, I have found a new way to make feminized seeds. Feminized seeds occur as a result of stress, rather than genetics. All cannabis plants can and will make male flowers under stress. Certain strains like a higher pH, some a lower one. Some like a lot of food, some like much less. There is quite a lot of variety in marijuana genetics, and you can’t treat every plant the same way.

    It takes many harvests before you really get to know a particular strain. Just like getting to know human friends, it takes time. I have grown the same strains for close to a decade, and am truly getting to know every nuance the different plants exhibit. I can recognize them from a distance. I must say that I get a lot of help from my friends, both in making seeds and in learning new and better ways of working with this sacred plant.

    I named this new method "Rodelization," after a friend who helped me realize and make use of this way of creating female seeds. After growing crop after crop of the same plants in the same conditions, I noticed that if I flowered the plants 10-14 days longer than usual, they would develop male "bananas." A male banana is a very slight male flower on a female marijuana plant that is formed because of stress. Usually they do not let out any pollen early enough to make seeds, but they sometimes do. They are a built-in safety factor so that in case of severe conditions, the plant can make sure the species is furthered.

    To me, a male banana is quite a beautiful thing. It has the potential of making all female seeds. Many growers out there have male-banana phobia. They see one and have heart palpitations, they want to cut down the entire crop, or at the very least take tweezers and pluck the little yellow emergency devices out. I call them "emergency devices" because they emerge at times of stress.

    In the Rodelization method, the male banana is very valuable. After growing your female plants 10-14 days longer than usual, hang them up to dry, then carefully take them off the drying lines and inspect for bananas. Each and every banana should be removed, and placed in a small bag labeled very accurately. These sealed bags can be placed in the fridge for one or two months and still remain potent.

    For the next phase, you need to have a separate crop that’s already 2 1/2 weeks into flowering. Take your sealed bags of pollen out of the fridge, and proceed to impregnate your new crop of females. To do this, you must first match the female plant and the pollen from the same strain in the previous crop. Shut all the fans in the growroom down. Then take a very fine paintbrush, dip it in the bag of pollen, and paint it on the female flower. Do this to each different strain you have growing together. I have done it with up to 10 different kinds in the same room with great success.

    I use the lower flowers to make seeds, leaving the top colas seedless for smoking. This method takes time (two crops), but is completely organic, and lets you have great-quality smoke at the same time you make your female seeds. If you’re one of those growers who’s never grown seeds for fear of not having something good to smoke, you will love this method.

    You can also use this pollen to make new female crosses by cross-pollinating. The older females with the male bananas can be brought into the room with the younger, unpollinated females after they are three weeks into flowering. Turn all of the circulation fans on high, and the little bits of pollen will proceed to make it around the room. Do this for several days. Six to seven weeks later, you will have ripe 100% feminized seeds; not nearly as many as a male plant would make, but enough to start over somewhere else with the same genetics.

    As a farmer who has been forced to move his genetics far away from where they started, I know very well the value of seeds. My friend Adam from ThSeeds in Amsterdam has a motto that I love to borrow these days: Drop seeds not bombs.

    somas Method :smile:


    jesters note

    to breed true female seeds you need to find a true female... these are harder to find than just getting a really female dominant plant to produce seeds. which is y rhodelizations such a good method. the plant makes it from start to finish basically as a female. stressing plants is one way to go about it i suppose.. but think about it if ya can stress the plant to produce seeds then its not really female is it. its just dominant female genetics the harder it is to make them produce pollen the more female dominant your plant is.. what we idealistically want as i said before is a true female.. other methods give good results but like i said we want 99% female ratios dont we and no hermies. stressing the plant to produce pollen will give a good female ratio too tho dont get me wrong..

    well thats the theory ppl

    mears220, DTR, dolamic and 1 other person like this.

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    BREEDING - Cannabis Growing Guide.... from weedfarmer.com

    It is possible to breed and select cuttings from plants that grow, flower, and mature faster. Some plants will naturally be better than others in this regard, and it is easy to select not only the most potent plants to clone or breed, but the fastest growing/flowering plants as well. Find your fastest growth plant, and breed it with your "best high" male for fast flowering, potent strains. Clone your fastest, best high plant for the quickest monocrop garden possible. Over time, it will save you a lot of waiting around for your plants to mature.
    When a male is starting to flower (2-4 weeks before the females) it should be removed from the females so it does not pollinate them. It is taken to a separate area. Any place that gets just a few hours of light per day will be adequate, including close to a window in a separate room in the house. Put newspaper or glass under it to catch the pollen as the flowers drop it.
    Keep a male alive indefinitely by bending the top severely and putting it in mild shock that delays it is maturity. Or take the tops as they mature and put the branches in water, over a piece of plate glass. Shake the branches every morning to release pollen onto the glass and then scrap it with a razor blade to collect it. A male pruned in this fashion stays alive indefinately and will continue to produce flowers if it gets suitable dark periods. This is much better than putting pollen in the freezer! Fresh pollen is always best.
    Save pollen in an air tight bag in the freezer. It will be good for about a month. It may be several more weeks before the females are ready to pollinate. Put a paper towel in the bag with it to act as a desecant.
    A plant is ready to pollinate 2 weeks after the clusters of female flowers first appear. If you pollinate too early, it may not work. Wait until the female flowers are well established, but still all while hairs are showing.
    Turn off all fans. Use a paper bag to pollinate a branch of a female plant. Use different pollen from two males on separate branches. Wrap the bag around the branch and seal it at the opening to the branch. Shake the branch vigorously. Wet the paper bag after a few minutes with a sprayer and then carefully remove it. Large plastic zip-lock bags also. Slip the bag over the male branch and shake the pollen loose. Carefully remove the bad and zip it up. It should be very dusty with pollen. To pollinate, place it over a single branch of the female, zipping it up sideways around the stem so no pollen leaks out. Shake the bag and the stem at the same time. Allow to settle for an hour or two and shake it again. Remove it a few hours later. Your branch is now well pollinated and should show signs of visible seed production in 2 weeks, with ripe seeds splitting the calyxes by 3-6 weeks. One pollinated branch can create hundreds of seeds, so it should not be necessary to pollinate more than one or two branches in many cases.
    When crossing two different varieties, a third variety of plant will be created. If you know what characteristics your looking for in a new strain, you will need several plants to choose from in order to have the best chance of finding all the qualities desired. Sometimes, if the two plants bred had dominant genes for certain characteristics, it will be impossible to get the plant you want from one single cross. In this case, it is necessary to interbreed two plants from the same batch of resultant seeds from the initial cross. In this fashion, recesive genes will become available, and the plant character you desire may only be possible in this manner.
    Usually, it is desirable only to cross two strains that are very different. In this manner, one usually arrives at what is refered to as "hybrid vigor". In other words, often the best strains are created by taking two very different strains and mating them. Less robust plants may be the result of interbreeding, since it opens up recesive gene traits that may lead to reduced potency.
    Hybrid offspring will all be very different from each other. Each plant grown from the same batch of seeds collected from the same plant, will be different. It is then necessary to try each plant separately and decide it is individual merits for yourself. If you find one that seems to be head and shoulders above the rest in terms of early flowering, high yield and get buzz, that is the plant to clone and continue breeding.
    In depth genetics is beyond the scope of this work. See Marijuana Botany; Smith, for more detailed info in this area.
    greennewfie likes this.

    Jester88 Well-Known Member


    The Dark One
    Join Date: Aug 2007
    Location: Far Far Away
    Posts: 225
    Rep Power: 6 [​IMG][​IMG]

    [​IMG] Colloidal Silver Generator for fem seeds

    Silver Wire Works perfectly for the electrodes and is less expensive than coins. Plus you won't need to solder on the clips, just use the wire to connect to the battery. ".999 silver wire" is available in 20 gauge on ebay for $2/ft plus $5 shipping as I write this.

    Info From Here:


    Pasted for convenience:

    "What is Colloidal Silver?
    Colloidal Silver is pure, metallic silver (the element), in particles of 15 atoms or fewer, each with a positive electric charge and attached to a molecule of a simple protein. These electrically charged particles of silver are extremely small, usually ranging from about 0.001 to about 0.01 microns in diameter, and are suspended in deionized water. The force of the electric charge is stronger than the force of gravity, so the silver particles remain suspended.

    In a nutshell how is Colloidal Silver made?
    You simply pass a small electric current through distilled water using a pure silver electrode (im using coins). That is essentially all there is to it. Contrary to popular belief, distilled water will conduct a small amount of electricity, allowing production of micro particulate colloidal silver.

    What the hell does it have to do with cannabis?!?
    We use Colloidal Silver (CS) for making FEMINISED SEEDS, which I'm a big fan of after having nothing but great success from them since i started growing a few years ago
    (The basic idea being you regularly spray CS on a female to force it to create bananas ie. pollen ... you then use that pollen to fertilize another female (or even itself, ie "selfing"), and the resulting seeds are feminised due to the pollen coming from a female instead of a male)

    Also, there are some other substances that can be used to force male parts on female plants, including STS (silver theosulphate, which is silver nitrate + sodium theosulphate) and GA (giberillic acid), but CS is non-toxic, easy, safe and inexpensive to make at home, doesn't require a DEA request form, and isn't a controlled substance.

    Csilver is available from your local chemist (in low parts-per-million though), and is drank for good health (the silver helps kill bacteria etc). But its PPM is too low for what we intend to use it for - feminised seeds! So we need to make our own with a higher PPM ... no problems, we simply allow the electrical current to flow through the silver for a longer duration

    You will need: a 9V power adapter that outputs DC, two alligator clips, a soldering iron + solder. (If you dont have soldering iron you can simply wrap the wire around the alligator clip base in a coil and that will suffice, but youll get better contact if you solder it).
    - Get a power adapter that has an output of 9V DC 600mA or thereabouts. Output must be DC, and 9V/600mA seems optimal from what I've read and been told
    - Cut the end off and discard
    - Split the main wire into its two smaller sub-wires (no need to pull them apart all the way though). Dont worry, we dont need to know which is positive/negative.
    - Use wire-cutters to remove the plastic shielding/insulation to expose the actual metal wires, about 1 inch is enough
    - Solder the wires onto alligator clips ($0.50ea from your local electronics store)

    If you dont have alligator clips Haps suggested a good alternative - drill a hole into each coin and coil the wire around that instead.

    - Get some distilled water. Do not use any other type of water due to impurities. At your supermarket you may find distilled water next to spring water, but it may also be in the ironing products isle as it is commonly used for steam irons.
    - Attach each alligator clip to a chunk of PURE 999 or 9999 SILVER (i just got two 1oz coins from the local Mint, approx US$20ea, but 1/2oz coins wouldve been suffice - i didnt realise how big 1oz of silver was!)
    - Make sure each coin is half-dunked in the water, but that the alligator clips themselves arent touching the water, then turn on your generator and leave it for about 7 hours. (goldking leaves his on "overnight" and thus probably gets an even higher PPM, but has had good results from it!)
    The end result: the electrolysis causes microscopic silver particles to be suspended in the water (= colloidal silver aka CS). The rig basically looks like this when in use (the only thing in contact with the water is the silver, not the alligator clips or anything else):

    It's also recommended you use an airpump with a clean (not used for anything else) airstone to help keep the water moving.

    Also you don't want to leave the CS generator running TOO long or the silver particles in the water start getting too large - ~8 hours should be plenty.

    Start spraying your target plant with CS just before you send it into 12/12 flowering, and keep spraying every few days. I won't go into details, but the CS causes the female to produce male flowers/pollen. Collect that pollen, and use it to pollenate another female (you can pollenate the same female that you CS'd (aka "self'ing") and indeed you may have to if you have a clone-only strain, although that may lead to more hermaphroditic traits, but I wont go into details on that). Anyway, because you've pollenated a plant with pollen from a female, the pollen can only create female seeds.

    There's obviously a lot more to it than that but hopefully this brief explanation will help people understand the basic jist of it

    ps. I don't recommend drinking home-made CS unless you've done your homework because the PPM may be too high, which is great for making feminised seeds (we need a higher PPM for that) but may have risks with human consumption - too much silver can cause argyria, a condition of blue or gray discoloration of the skin, so always buy it from your chemist if you intend to use it medicinally. Also if you do drink it medicinally it's recommended you also take additional probiotics (like Yakult), because the silver also kills a lot of the good bacteria inside you. So do your homework first!

    don't know what the RULES are for misting the plants,but i soak the heck out of mine when i spray,every day, not just a lil damp mist,thats why if i had to pay $20+ for a lil bottle at the health store, i could never afford to use CS.

    i touch my ingots together to look for a miniscule spark arch to see if every thing has positive contact and is working. the spark, if there will be very very faint, kinda like rubbing a cat on the wall, the sparks are hard to see"

    The gist of the comments on the page is that CS works and produced male flowers on two plants after a single application 2 weeks into 12/12.

    silver thiosulphate

    Medical Marijuana


    Join Date: Mar 2008
    Posts: 0
    Blog Entries: 1

    How To Reverse Sex Using Silver Thiosulfate Solution
    The following is a safe, inexpensive, and successful method for reversing the sex of female cannabis plants. Individual plant responses may vary based upon strain, but I can verify that this process is fully effective in stimulating profuse staminate flower production.

    This process can be used to:
    A: create new feminized seeds from solitary prize mothers that you currently have
    B: create interesting feminized-seed hybrids from different prize strains that you currently have
    C: create feminized seeds for optimum outdoor use
    D: accelerate the "interview" phase of cultivation, in searching for interesting new clone-mothers
    E: reduce total plant numbers- great for medical users with severe plant number restrictions
    F: increase variety, by helping to create stable feminized seedlines to be used as an alternative to clones

    At the bottom of this post are some specific details about the chemicals used, their safety, their cost, and where to get them.

    It is important to educate yourself about cannabis breeding theory and technique prior to using a method like this one. Here is a link to Robert Clarke's "Marijuana Botany", which is a very good reference.

    "Marijuana Botany" by Robert Connell Clarke
    (unfortunately missing the appendices)

    It is also important to use basic safety precautions when mixing and handling these chemicals, so read the safety data links provided. The risk is similar to mixing and handling chemical fertilizers, and similar handling procedures are sufficient.

    Remember: nothing will ever replace good genetics, and some of your bounty should always go back towards the professional cannabis breeders out there... the ones who have worked for many generations to come up with their true-breeding F1 masterpieces. Support professional breeders by buying their seeds. Also, order from Heaven's Stairway. Not that they need a plug from me, but they are very professional and provide very fast service worldwide.

    Preparation of STS:
    First, a stock solution is made. It consists of two parts (A and B) that are initially mixed separately, then blended together. Part A is ALWAYS mixed into part B while stirring rapidly. Use distilled water; tap water may cause precipitates to form.

    Wear gloves while mixing and using these chemicals, and mix and use in a properly ventilated area. A mask will prevent the breathing of any dust, which is caustic. STS is colorless and odorless, and poses minimal health risks if used as described here. (See material safety data sheet links below). Note that silver nitrate and STS can cause brown stains upon drying, so spray over newspaper and avoid spilling.

    Part A: .5 gram silver nitrate stirred into 500ml distilled water
    Part B: 2.5 grams sodium thiosulfate (anhydrous) stirred into 500ml distilled water

    The silver nitrate dissolves within 15 seconds. The sodium thiosulfate takes 30-45 seconds to dissolve.

    The silver nitrate solution (A) is then mixed into the sodium thiosulfate solution (B) while stirring rapidly. The resulting blend is stock silver thiosulfate solution (STS).

    This stock solution is then diluted at a ratio of 1:9 to make a working solution. For example, 100ml of stock STS is added to 900ml of distilled water. This is then sprayed on select female plants.

    Both the stock STS and the working solution should be refrigerated after use, as well as the powdered chemicals, to avoid activity loss. Excess working solution can be safely poured down the drain after use (with ample running water) with negligible environmental impact. It's pretty cheap.

    Each liter of stock STS will make ten 1-liter batches of working solution of STS. With the minimum amount of base chemicals ordered from Photographer's Formulary (see link below), this means that each 1-liter bottle of working solution STS costs less than 9 cents, and can treat 15-20 mid-sized plants. That's 200 1-liter batches of STS for $18. Note that the distilled water costs far more than the chemicals.

    The STS working solution is sprayed on select female plants until runoff. Do the spraying over newspaper in a separate area from the flower room. You probably won't smell anything, but ventilate anyway. You now have what I call a "F>M plant"; a female plant that will produce male flowers.

    After the F>M plant dries move it into 12/12 immediately. This is usually done three to four weeks prior to the date that the target (to be pollinated) plants will be ready to pollinate. Response times may vary slightly depending upon the strain. More specific times can be determined by trial with your own individual strains. In my trials it took 26 days for the first pollen. 30-35 days seems optimum for planning purposes.

    So, assuming that a target plant needs 3-4 weeks to produce fully mature seeds, a strain that takes 8 weeks to mature should be moved into flower at about the same time as the female>male plant. A target plant that finishes flowering in 6 weeks needs to be moved into flower later (10 days or so) so that it doesn't finish before the seeds can fully mature.

    A seeded individual branch can be left to mature on a plant for a bit longer, while harvesting the other seedless buds if they finish first. Just leave enough leaves on for the plant for it to stay healthy.

    Within days I noticed a yellowing of the leaves on the F>M plants. This effect persisted for two weeks or so; after this they became green again, except for a few of the larger fans. The plants otherwise seemed healthy. No burning was observed. Growth stopped dead for the first ten days, and then resumed slowly. No stretch was ever seen. After two weeks the F>M plants were obviously forming male flower clusters. Not just a few clusters of balls, but complete male flower tops. One plant still formed some pistillate flowers, but overall it was predominantly male.

    It is strange indeed to see an old girlfriend that you know like the back of your hand go through a sex change. I'll admit that things were awkward between us at first.

    When the F>M plants look like they may soon open and release pollen, ( 3-1/2 to 4 weeks) move them from the main flower room into another unventilated room or closet with lighting on a 12/12 timer. Don't worry too much about watts per square foot; it will only be temporary.

    When the pollen flies, move your target plants into the closet and pollinate.

    A more controlled approach is to isolate the F>M plants in a third remote closet (no light is necessary in this one, as they are releasing pollen now and are nearly finished anyway). In this remote other closet the pollen is very carefully collected in a plastic produce bag or newspaper sleeve and then brought back to the lighted closet, where the target plants are now located. If this is done, be careful to not mix pollen types by letting the F>Ms dust each other. Avoid movement, or use yet another closet.

    Take special care to not let pollen gather on the outside of this bag- a static charge is sometimes present. Drop small open clusters of blooms inside and then close the bag at the mouth and shake. Important: next, step outside and slowly release the excess air from the bag, collapsing it completely, so that pollen doesn't get released accidently. Point downwind; don't let it get on your hands or clothes.

    This collapsed pollinated bag is now very carefully slipped over only one branch and is then tied off tightly at the mouth around the branch stem with a twist tie or tape, sealing the pollen inside. Let the bag inflate slightly with air again before sealing it off, so the branch can breathe. This technique keeps the entire plant from seeding. Agitate the bag a bit after tying it off to distribute the pollen. Don't forget to label the branch so you know which seeds are which. Other branches on this same plant can be hit with different pollen sources.

    If no lighted closet is available, the plant can be moved back into the main room, but- be very carefulollen is sneaky. After 4-5 days, the bag is gently removed and the plant completes it's flowering cycle.

    Yet another method has worked well for me. I position the target plants in a non-ventilated lighted closet, and then I collect pollen on a piece of mirror or glass. This is then carefully applied to the pistils of one pre-labeled branch by using a very fine watercolor paintbrush. Care is taken to not agitate the branch or the pollen. No sneezing. The plant needs to be in place first; moving it after pollination can shake pollen free and blow this technique.

    Regardless of technique, at completion you will have feminized seeds. Let them dry for 2-4 weeks.

    About the chemicals:
    Silver nitrate is a white crystalline light-sensitive chemical that is commonly used in photography. It is also used in babies' eyes at birth to prevent blindness. It can cause mild skin irritation, and it stains brown. Avoid breathing. I didn't notice any smell or fumes, but ventilation is recommended. Be sure to wash the spray bottle well before you use it elsewhere; better yet: devote a bottle to STS use. A half gram is a surprisingly small amount; it would fit inside a gel capsule.

    Here are links to some safety data. A Google search will bring up more information if needed.

    Silver Nitrate info:
    ICSC:NENG1116 International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO) | CDC/NIOSH

    For a realistic hazard level comparison, here is a link for the safety and handling data for Ammonium Nitrate, or common fertilizer:

    Sodium thiosulfate is also a white crystalline chemical commonly used in photography; it is used in photographic fixers. Same general cautions apply, minus the staining. This formula uses the anhydrous type. Non-hazardous.

    Sodium Thiosulfate info:

    Where to get the chemicals:

    Photographic chemicals, photo chemistry, photo processing equipment, photo chemicals

    silver nitrate: 10 grams: $10

    sodium thiosulfate (anhydrous): 100 grams: $3.95

    Postage runs around $4. Fast service. Can be shipped to Canada.

    Have fun experimenting with this technique. Use it responsibly. There are a few good threads here at CW that go into the pros and cons of transsexual agents and feminized seeds. Read them. And most importantly, use STS with quality F1 strains developed by professional breeders for the most consistent results.

    A huge thanks to Fet from Spice Brothers Seeds for his help and advice in using this technique. I simply brought together available information from previous posts and tried my own recipe. I'm thrilled to share the results. Future tests will be done to adjust the formula so the molar ratios of the chemicals are correct, as specified by Gobgoober (thanks, Gob) but the formula posted here is completely effective.


    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    Submitted by: Lord Of The Strains
    Contributed on: 02-20-2004

    How can I get my plants to produce femenized seeds?

    There are two methods that I am familiar with; Light-Poisoning, and Gibberellic Acid Treatment, both forcing female plants to produce male flowers and pollinate themselves. I have employed both methods, and both have yielded satisfactory results.


    LIGHT-POISONING METHOD: During the first three weeks of flowering, turn the lights on for an hour during the middle of the dark period. That is, 12 hrs. on, 5.5 hrs. off, 1 hr. on, 5.5 hrs. off, and repeat for the first 3 weeks, after which you may return to the normal 12/12 light cycle. This causes a plant to go "hermie" and pollinate itself, as well as any other female in the room. You must use plants originating only from female seeds or clones to ensure that no male chromosomes are present. The resulting seeds will produce NO MALE PLANTS!

    GIBBERELLIC ACID TREATMENT: Select your favorite female plant and spray it from approx. two feet away (first under the leaves, then on top). This must be done 2 weeks before the plant is put into the flowering light cycle, thus the need to start with female seeds/clones. DO NOT SMOKE BUD TREATED WITH GIBBERELLIC ACID! Spray the plant again after 2 weeks have passed, and place it under 12/12 lighting. This plant will "hermie" and pollinate itself and other females present. It will not produce as much pollen as a pure male, thus less seeds. However, these seeds will be 100% female.

    Now, femenized seeds have also been known to produce hermaphrodites. This is just an evolutionary safety precaution to ensure the survival of the species in the event of environmental catastrophe. All seeds have the potential to hermie. Variables such as pH levels, lighting scenarios, fertilizer problems, etc. will also be factors in the outcome of the plant's sex. Just keep 'em healthy, and give them your tender, loving care, and you should be fine.

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    kindprincess [​IMG] vbmenu_register("postmenu_120826", true);

    this is directly from marijuanahydro.com and is originally from greg green's herb grow bible.

    that you enjoy, cloning is your best option. You could also continue the strain by breeding two plants to produce seeds. You won't completely replicate the strain again using the seed method, however, unless the two parent plants are from the same IBL (inbred line). Even if the two plants are not IBLs, they should produce seeds that contain most of the parents' features. If you want to create a plant with characteristics from two different strains, breeding the marijuana from seed is your only option. That is the subject of this chapter, which begins with an introduction to simple breeding procedures and then goes on to cover advanced techniques like breeding a true strain and backcrossing.

    Making marijuana Seeds
    How easy is it to make seeds? It's easy if you have healthy plants and a stable growing environment. When your male plants burst their pollen sacks in your grow room they'll pollinate the female flowers. You can also administer pollen directly to your females if you prefer.

    Collecting and Storing Pollen
    Pollen can be extracted from male flowers as soon as they open: you'll see the male flower open out from its calyx. It is best to gather pollen after it falls from the pod onto the leaves. You can shake the pollen onto the female flowers to pollinate them or grow your males separately and store their pollen for future use.
    Film canisters are great for storing pollen. You can save pollen in a canister for the next harvest. Although it can be stored in the freezer for as long as months, pollen is best used within six months of collection. Pollen has been known to keep for longer than 18 months, but is usually not viable past this time.
    Collecting and Storing Seeds

    If you have pollinated your plants, at the end of the flowering stage the bud will contain seeds.The seeds should be gray, tan or dark brown in color.They may also be striped, banded or lined with different colored markings. If they are pale cream or white in color, then they are probably not viable and you have harvested them too early. You should wait until the end of flowering to harvest your seeds.

    Your seeds will be mixed in with the bud and it can take quite a bit of time to separate them from their sticky calyx pods. Do not squeeze the calyx directly because you can damage the seed inside. Just tease the seed out from the calyx with your fingers. If you do not want the bud you can brush a seeded flowering branch against some fabric or a sieve to release the seeds from their respective calyx pods. It is easier to remove seeds from dry, cured bud than from freshly harvested plants.

    If you plan to use the seeds in more than two years time, store them in an airtight container and place this in a freezer. If you plan to use the seeds within the next two years, storing them in a standard film canister or similar container will work well. Keep this canister away from heat and direct light and do not let it get damp or your risk spoiling your seeds. Containers placed in the freezer should not be opened until you are ready to use them. Allow the seeds to thaw at room temperature for at least 12 hours before use.


    Simple Backcrossing
    Our first cross between the Master Kush plant and the Silver Haze is known as the Fl hybrid cross. Let's pretend that both traits are homozygous for leaf color: the Silver Haze is pale green and the Master Kush is dark green. Which is SS or ss? We won't know until we see the offspring.
    Fl Hybrid Cross s

    This Fl cross will result in hybrid seeds. Since S is dominant over s, we'll know which color is more dominant and from which parent it came from. In this example, the overall results are pale green.Thus, the pale green allele is dominant over the dark green.
    S = Silver Haze pale green leaf trait is dominant s = Master Kush dark green leaf trait is recessive
    We also know that because no variations occurred in the population that both parents were homozygous for that trait. However, all the offspring are heterozygous. Here is where we can take a shortcut in manipulating the gene pool for that population. By cloning the parent plant SS, we can use this clone in our cross with the Ss offspring. This is known as a backcross. Obviously, if our parent is female then we'll have to use males from the Ss selection in our backcross, and vice versa.
    F2 Backcross



    Now our first backcross will result in 50 percent homozygous (SS) offspring and 50 percent heterozygous offspring (Ss) for that trait. Here all the offspring will exhibit the pale green leaf trait. If we didn't backcross but just used the heterozygous offspring for the breeding program we would have ended up with 25

    percent homozygous dominant (SS), 50 percent heterozygous (Ss) and 25 percent homozygous recessive (ss), as shown below.
    F2 Hybrid
    Cross (without backcrossing)



    Backcrossing seriously helps to control the frequencies of a specific trait in the offspring. The F2 Hybrid Cross produced some plants with the dark green leaf trait. The F2 Backcross did not.

    The F2 backcross is an example of simple backcrossing. Let's see what happens when we do our second backcross (F3) using the same original parent kept alive through cloning. Our second backcross is referred to as squaring. Since we're dealing with only two types of offspring Ss and SS, we'll either repeat the results of the F2 backcross...
    F3 Backcross with heterozygote

    In the F3 Backcross with the homozygote, all of the offspring are homozygous dominant (SS) and thus true breeding for that trait.These offspring are the result of squaring and can never produce the ss traits because the SS trait is now true breeding and stable. The F3 Backcross with the heterozygote has some Ss offspring. If we breed the Ss and Ss offspring we can produce the ss trait. This line would not be stable.

    How to Generate a Clone Mother
    The best way to generate a clone mother is to grow a large population of plants from the same strain. If the strain is an IBL then you should find that the plants do not exhibit much variation. It can be difficult to find a clone mother from an IBL strain, though, because IBLs are created to provide a population of plants from seed from the F3 Backcross with the homozygote, which all resemble the clone mother that the breeder enjoyed and wanted to share with you.

    The best way to generate a clone mother is to select her from a large population of Fl hybrids. If you do not find a clone mother in the Fl population then allow random mating to occur and see if you can generate a good clone mother in the F2 population. If you do not find the clone mother in the F2 population then either grow a larger population or select different parents to create a new Fl population.

    A clone mother is only as good as the environment she is grown in. The environment influences how the genotype is displayed in the phenotype.* Although indoor plants can grow outdoors and outdoor plants can grow indoors, the expressed phenotype of the genotype may change because of the diversity in growing conditions. This is why breeders urge that you grow their strains in the recommended environment.

    Selfing is the ability of a plant to produce seeds without the aid of another plant and refers to hermaphrodite plants that are able to self-pollinate. Hermaphrodite plants have both male and female flowers.This usually means that the hermaphrodite plant is monoecious. Most plants are dioecious and have male and female flowers on separate plants.

    Monoecious herb strains will always display both sexes regardless of the growing conditions. Under optimal growing conditions a monoecious herb strain will still produce both male and female flowers on the same plant. Under optimal growing conditions a dioecious herb strain will produce male and female flowers on separate plants.

    Stressful growing conditions can cause some dioecious herb strains to produce both male and female flowers on the same plant. Manipulating an irregular photoperiod during the flowering stage is an easy way to encourage the dioecious hermaphrodite condition. Not all dioecious herb strains can become hermaphrodites. The dioecious herb strain must have a preexisting genetic disposition to become hermaphrodite under stressful conditions in order for male and female flowers to appear on the same plant.

    If you find a dioecious herb strain that has the hermaphrodite condition you can separate this plant from the rest and allow selfing to occur. If the male pollen is viable on this plant then the hermaphrodite will produce seeds. Selfed plants that produce seeds will eventually generate offspring that:
    1. Are all female
    2. Are all hermaphrodite
    3. Produce male, female and hermaphrodite plants because the environment also influences the final sexual expression of the selfed plant
    4. Express limited variation from the original selfed plant
    Breeders should note that it is nearly impossible for a hermaphrodite to create male plants although the environment can influence males to appear. Hermaphrodites usually create female-only and hermaphrodite seeds. The female-only seeds often carry the hermaphrodite trait. Selfing has become popular among those who wish to breed all-female or feminized seeds. Unfortunately feminized seeds do very little for the herb gene pool as the hermaphrodite condition prevents growers from generating a sinsemilla crop.

    Well-informed breeders tend to shy away from producing feminized seeds. Feminized seeds should only be used for bud production and not for breeding. Generating seeds from feminized plants is only advised for personal use and not for distribution.
    Notes on Selfing by Vie High
    These notes were taken from an online interview. Notes provided by Vie High, BCGA breeder.

    100% Female Seeds
    POSTED BYTHESILICONMAGICIAN ON FEBRUARY 13, 1999 AT 05:17:41 PT As some of you may know I've been a regular in the chat room for a while and I spend a large amount of time in there. I have had the extreme pleasure of speaking to Mr. XX over the last few nights for many hours and have gotten to know him quite well via email and the chat. He has confided in me and in a few others about his process for coming up with 100 percent female seeds.

    Mr. XX is a very nice guy, funny too and it's always a pleasure to speak with him. He doesn't speak English too well, but his wit comes through the rough language and he's a riot. He's a pure lover of herb and feels that everyone should share and share alike. He simply wants to share his knowledge with the herb community, and because he's spent 15 years researching this, I spoke about it with him in depth.

    He has stressed literally hundreds of plants with irregular photoperiods. What he does is put the lights on 12/12 for 10 days. Then he turns the lights on 24 hours, then 12/12 again for a few days, then back to 24 hours for a day, then 12/12 again for a few weeks. If he does this and no hermaphrodites come up, he has found a 100% XX female that can't turn hermaphrodite naturally. He claims that your chances of finding a 100% XX female is vastly increased when using Indica genetics. He also informed me that the more Afghani or Nepalese genetics the plant has, the better the chances of finding a natural XX female. In his own words: "Where did nature give weed a home originally?" I tried to get him to narrow it down to a ratio, but he never specified just how many plants per are XX females. He claims there are plenty of XX females for everybody, and that's all he will say on the subject. It takes a lot of time and a lot of plants to find that one female.
    He then uses gibberellic acid, mixing 30 centiliters of water with 0.02 grams of gibberellic acid and 2 drops of natruim hydroxide to liquefy the gibberellic. Then applies as normal and creates the male flowers. He has gotten down to the 4th generation without loss of vigor, and with no genetic deficiencies and hermaphrodites. He claims that the plants are exact genetic clones of one another, complete sisters. Basically it's cloned from seed instead of from normal cloning methods.

    Mr. XX also says that it's easy for the home grower to find an XX female. It's a very time-consuming process but a straightforward one. He advises home growers to confine themselves to a single strain. Mr. XX used a Skunktfl x Haze x Hawaiian Indica. He says to separate those plants from your main grow and stress them severely. Do this repeatedly with every new crop of seeds you get of that strain until you find the XX female. While this is time consuming it is by no means impossible.

    An understanding of plant breeding requires a basic understanding of the Hardy-Weinberg law.To illustrate the value of the Hardy-Weinberg law, ask yourself a question, like: "If purple bud color is a dominant trait, why do some of the offspring of my purple bud strain have green buds?" or "I have been selecting Indica mothers and cross-breeding them with mostly Indica male plants but I have some Sativa leaves. Why?" These questions can be easily answered by developing an understanding of the Hardy-Weinberg law and the factors that can disrupt genetic equilibrium.

    The first of these questions, reflects a very common misconception: that the dominant allele of a trait will always have the highest frequency in a population and the recessive allele will always have the lowest frequency.This is not always the case. A dominant trait will not necessarily spread to a whole population, nor will a recessive trait always eventually die out.

    Gene frequencies can occur in high or low ratios, regardless of how the allele is expressed.The allele can also change, depending on certain conditions. It is these changes in gene frequencies over time that result in different plant characteristics.
    A genetic population is basically a group of individuals of the same species (herb Indica or herb Sativa) or strain (Skunk#l or Master Kush) in a given area whose members can breed with one another.This means that they must share a common group of genes.This common group of genes is locally known as the gene pool.The gene pool contains the alleles for all of the traits in the entire population. For a step in evolution — a new plant species, strain or trait — to occur, some of the gene frequencies must change. The gene frequency of an allele refers to the number of times an allele for a particular trait occurs compared to the total number of alleles for that trait in the population. Gene frequency is calculated by dividing the number of a specific type of allele by the total number of alleles in the gene pool.

    Genetic Equilibrium Theory and Application
    The Hardy-Weinberg model of genetic equilibrium describes a theoretical situation in which there is no change in the gene pool. At equilibrium there can be no change or evolution.

    Let's consider a population whose gene pool contains the alleles B and b.
    Assign the letter p to the frequency of the dominant allele B and the letter q to the frequency of the recessive allele b. We know that the sum of all the alleles must equal 100 percent, so:
    p + q = 100%
    This can also be expressed as:
    p + q = l

    And all of the random possible combinations of the members of a population would equal:
    p2 + 2pq + q2
    p = frequency of the dominant allele in a population q = frequency of the recessive allele in a population p2 = percentage of homozygous dominant individuals q2 = percentage of heterozygous recessive individuals 2pq = percentage of heterozygous individuals
    Imagine that you have grown a population of 1,000 'Black Domina' herb plants from seeds obtained from a well known seed bank. In that population, 360 plants emit a skunky smell, while the remaining 640 plants emit a fruity smell. You contact the seed bank and ask them which smell is dominant in this particular strain. Hypothetically, they tell you that the breeder selected for a fruity smell and the skunk smell is a recessive genotype. You can call this recessive genotype Vv'and use the formula above to answer the following questions.
    QUESTION: According to the Hardy-Weinberg law, what is the frequency of the Vv'genotype?
    ANSWER: Since 360 out of the 1,000 plants have the Vv'genotype, then 36% is the frequency of Vv' in this population of 'Black Domina'.
    QUESTION: According to the Hardy-Weinberg law, what is the frequency of the Vallele?
    ANSWER: The frequency of the Vv'allele is 36%. Since q2 is the percentage of homozygous recessive individuals, and q is the frequency of the recessive allele in a population, the following must also be true:
    q2 = 0.36
    (q x q) = 0.36
    q = 0.6
    Thus, the frequency of the Vallele is 60%.

    QUESTION: According to the Hardy-Weinberg law, what is the frequency of the NV'allele?
    ANSWER: Since q = 0.6, we can solve for p.
    p + q = l
    p + 0.6 = 1
    p = 1 - 0.6
    p = 0.4
    The frequency of the VV allele is 40%.
    QUESTION: According to the Hardy-Weinberg law, what is the frequency of the genotypesN W and 'Vv'?
    ANSWER: Given what we know, the following must be true:
    VV = p2
    V = 0.4 = p
    (p x p) = p2
    (0.4 x0.4) = p2
    0.16 = p2
    VV = 0.16
    The frequency of the genotype NVV is 16%
    VV = 0.16
    vv = 0.36
    VV + Vv + vv = 1
    0.16 + Vv + 0.36 = 1
    0.52 + Vv = 1
    Vv = 1 - 0.52
    Vv = 0.48 or 48%
    Or alternatively, NVv' is 2pq, therefore:
    Vv = 2pq
    2pq = 2 x p x q
    2pq = 2 x 0.4 x 0.6
    2pq = 0.48 or 48%

    The frequencies of V and v (p and q) will remain unchanged, generation after generation, as long as the following five statements are true:
    1. The population is large enough
    2. There are no mutations
    3. There are no preferences, for example a VV male does not prefer a vv female by its nature
    4. No other outside population exchanges genes with this population
    5. Natural selection does not favor any specific gene
    The equation p2 + 2pq + q2 can be used to calculate the different frequencies. Although this equation is important to know about, we make use of other more basic calculations when breeding. The important thing to note here is the five conditions for equilibrium.
    Earlier we asked the question: "I have been selecting Indica mothers and crossbreeding them with mostly Indica male plants but I have some Sativa leaves. Why?" The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tells us that outside genetics may have been introduced into the breeding program. Since the mostly Indica male plants are only mostly Indica and not pure Indica, you can expect to discover some Sativa characteristics in the offspring, including the Sativa leaf trait. Simple Breeding
    Your approach to breeding will depend on what you ultimately hope to achieve. Do you want to create a new strain; create seeds that are similar to the parents; or cross two plants to create a simple hybrid strain?

    Continuing a Strain through Seeds
    Say you purchased $120 worth of Silver Haze seeds and you want to make more seeds without any interference from another strain. That's easy. Just make sure that the male and female plants you breed with are from the same strain batch. In this instance the same strain batch would be Silver Haze from the same breeder. If you use Silver Haze from different breeders then the offspring may express a great deal of variation.This is because most breeders create their own versions of a popular strain. Their variety may have dissimilar characteristics from those of other breeders who have bred the same strain.
    If you only have Silver Haze from the same breeder in your grow room, then all you need are a group of males and a group of females. Let the males pollinate the females and you will get more Silver Haze seeds, but you will loose some of the features of the original parent plants unless the strain you have is an IBL or from a very stable inbred pure line.

    Making a Simple Hybrid
    Again, making a simple hybrid is easy. Just take a male plant from one strain and a female plant from another, for example Big Bud and Skunk. The result will be vBig Bud x Skunk', but there will be differences in the offspring. Some of the plants will exhibit more Big Bud traits and some will exhibit more Skunk traits. Genes not expressed by each of the parents may also appear in the offspring.
    If you want to breed for specific traits by eliminating variations, ultimately creating uniform plants or even an IBL, then you should start with a basic knowledge of plant genetics.

    Genetics can be somewhat difficult to understand at first so we'll start by explaining a few rudimentary concepts and the basic terminology. The explanations for the words below can be treated as a glossary for your benefit.

    Genes are the units of heredity transmitted from parent to offspring, usually as part of a chromosome. Genes usually control or determine a single characteristic in the offspring. There are genes responsible for each feature of your plant to be inherited, including leaf color, stem structure, texture, smell, potency, etc.

    Gene Pairs
    All of life is made up of a pattern of genes. You can think of this pattern as being similar to the two sides of a zipper. One side is inherited from the mother and the other from the father. Each gene occupies a specific locus, or particular space on the chain, and controls information about the eventual characteristics of the plant. So each gene locus contains two genes, one from the mother and one from the father. These gene pairs are usually denoted by a pair of letters, such as BB, Bb, Pp, pp, etc. Capital letters refer to dominant genes while lower case letters refer to recessive genes. By way of example, B can represent Big Bud while b can represent small bud. Any letter can be assigned to any trait or gene pair when you are working out your own breeding program.

    A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and proteins in the cell nuclei of higher
    organisms that carries a set of linked genes, usually paired.

    A position on a chromosome where a particular gene pair is located.

    Alleles are any of a number of alternative forms of one gene. For example the gene for purple bud color may have two forms, or alleles, one for purple and one for dark red.

    Having identical alleles at one or more genetic loci, which is not a heterozygote (see below) and breeds true. Your plant is said to be homozygous for one feature when it carries the same gene twice in the responsible gene pair, which means both genes of the gene pair are identical.

    Having different alleles at one or more genetic loci. Your plant is said to be heterozygous for one feature when the genes of the responsible gene pair are unequal, or dissimilar.

    The phenotype is the summary of all of the features you can detect or recognize
    on the outside of your plant, including color, smell and taste.

    The genotype is the genetic constitution of your plant, as distinguished from the phenotype.The genotype characterizes how your plant looks from the inside. It is the summary of all the genetic information that your plant carries and passes on to its offspring.

    Dominant is used to describe a gene or allele that is expressed even when inherited from only one parent. It is also used to describe a hereditary trait controlled by a gene and appearing in an individual to the exclusion of its counterpart, when alleles for both are present. Only one dominant allele in the gene pair must be present to become the expressed genotype and eventually the expressed pheno-type of your plant.

    Recessive describes a gene, allele or hereditary trait perceptibly expressed only in homozygotes, being masked in heterozygotes by a dominant allele or trait. A gene is called recessive when its effect cannot be seen in the phenotype of your plant when only one allele is present.The same allele must be present twice in the gene pair in order for you to see it expressed in the phenotype of your plant.

    Dominant/Recessive and Genetic Notation
    Assume that the dominant'B'allele carries the hereditary trait for Big Bud, while the recessive xb' allele carries the hereditary trait for small bud. Since B is dominant, a plant with a Bb genotype will always produce Big Bud.The B is dominant over the b. In order for a recessive gene to be displayed in the phenotype, both genes in the gene pair must be recessive. So a plant with the BB or Bb gene will always produce Big Bud. Only a plant with the bb gene will produce small bud.
    Now that we have explained the basic terminology of plant genetics, we can move on to the next step: rudimentary breeding concepts as laid out in the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium.

    Some of you may be asking the question: "How do I know if a trait, such as bud color is homozygous dominant (BB), heterozygous (Bb) or homozygous recessive (bb)?"
    If you've been given seeds or a clone you may have been told that a trait, such as potency, is homozygous dominant, heterozygous or homozygous recessive. However, you will want to establish this yourself, especially if you intend to use those specific traits in a future breeding plan. To do this, you will have to perform what is called a test cross.
    Determining the phenotype of a plant is fairly straightforward. You look at the plant and you see, smell, feel or taste its phenotype. Determining the genotype cannot be achieved through simple observation alone.
    Generally speaking, there are three possible genotypes for each plant trait. For example, if Golden Bud is dominant and Silver Bud is recessive, the possible genotypes are:

    BB = Golden Bud
    Bb = Golden Bud
    bb = Silver Bud
    The Golden and Silver Bud colors are the phenotypes. BB, Bb and bb denote the genotypes. Because B is the dominant allele, Bb would appear Golden and not Silver. Most phenotypes are visual characteristics but some, like bud taste, are phenotypes that can't be observed by the naked eye and are experienced instead through the other senses.
    For example, looking at a mostly Sativa species like a Skunk plant you will notice that the leaves are pale green. In a population of these Skunk plants you may notice that a few have dark green leaves. This suggests that this Skunk strain's leaf color is not true breeding, meaning that the leaf trait must be heterozygous because homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive traits are true breeding. Some of the Skunk's pale green leaf traits will probably be homozygous dominant in this population.
    You may also be asking the question: "Could the pale green trait be the homozygous recessive trait and the dark green leaf the heterozygous trait?" Since a completely homozygous recessive population (bb) would not contain the allele (B) for heterozygous expression (Bb) or for homozygous dominant expression (BB), it is impossible for the traits for heterozygous (Bb) or homozygous dominant (BB) to exist in a population that is completely homozygous recessive (bb) for that trait. If a population is completely homozygous for that trait (bb or BB), then that specific trait can be considered stable, true breeding or'will breed true'. If a population is heterozygous for that trait (Bb) then that specific trait can be considered unstable, not true breeding or 'will not breed true'.
    If the trait for Bb or BB can not exist in a bb population for that trait, then bb is the only trait that you will discover in that population. Hence, bb is true breeding. If there is a variation in the trait, and the Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium has not been broken, the trait must be heterozygous. In our Skunk example there were only a few dark green leaves. This means that the dark green leaves are homozygous recessive and the pale green leaves are heterozygous and may possibly be homozygous dominant too.

    You may also notice that the bud is golden on most of the plants. This also suggests that the Golden Bud color is a dominant trait. If buds on only a few of the plants are Silver, this suggests that the Silver trait is recessive. You know the only genotype that produces the recessive trait is homozygous recessive (bb). So if a plant displays a recessive trait in its phenotype, its genotype must be homozygous recessive. A plant that displays a recessive trait in its phenotype always has a homozygous recessive genotype. But this leaves you with an additional question to answer as well: are the Golden Bud or pale green leaf color traits homozygous dominant (BB) or heterozygous (Bb)? You cannot be completely certain of any of your inferences until you have completed a test cross.
    A test cross is performed by breeding a plant with an unknown dominant genotype (BB or Bb) with a plant that is homozygous recessive (bb) for the same trait. For this test you will need another herb plant of the opposite sex that is homozygous recessive (bb) for the same trait.

    This brings us to an important rule: If any offspring from a test cross display the recessive trait, the genotype of the parent with the dominant trait must be heterozygous and not homozygous.

    In our example, our unknown genotype is either BB or Bb.The Silver Bud genotype is bb. We'll put this information into a mathematical series known as Punnett squares.
    We start by entering the known genotypes. We do these calculations for two parents that will breed. We know that our recessive trait is bb and the other is either BB or Bb, so we'll use B? for the time being. Our next step is to fill the box in with what we can calculate.

    The first row of offspring Bb and Bb will have the dominant trait of Golden Bud. The second row can either contain Bb or bb offspring.This will either lead to offspring that will produce more Golden Bud (Bb) or Silver Bud (bb).The first possible outcome (where ? = B) would give us Golden Bud (Bb) offspring.The second possible outcome (where ? = b) would give us Silver Bud (bb) offspring. We can also predict what the frequency will be.
    Outcome 1, where ? = B:
    Bb+ Bb+ Bb+ Bb = 4Bb
    100% Golden Bud
    Outcome 2, where ? = b:
    Bb + Bb + bb + bb = 2bb
    50% Golden Bud and 50% Silver Bud
    Homozygous Dominant: Heterozygous: Homozygous Recessive:
    BB = Golden Bud Bb = Golden Bud bb = Silver Bud
    To determine the identity of B?, we used another herb plant of the opposite sex that was homozygous recessive (bb) for the same trait.

    • Both parents must have at least one b trait each to exhibit Silver Bud in the phenotype of the offspring.

    • If any Silver Bud is produced in the offspring then the mystery parent (B?) must be heterozygous (Bb). It cannot be homozygous dominant (BB).
    So, if a Golden Bud parent is crossed with a Silver Bud parent and produces only Golden Bud, then the Golden Bud parent must be homozygous dominant for that trait. If any Silver Bud offspring is produced, then the Golden Bud parent must be heterozygous for that trait.

    To summarize, the guidelines for performing a test cross to determine the genotype of a plant exhibiting a dominant trait are:
    1. The plant with the dominant trait should always be crossed with a plant with the recessive trait.
    2. If any offspring display the recessive trait, the unknown genotype is heterozygous.
    3. If all the offspring display the dominant trait, the unknown genotype is homozygous dominant.

    The main reasoning behind performing a test cross are:
    1. When you breed plants you want to continue a trait, like height, taste, smell, etc.
    2. When you want to continue that trait you must know if it is homozygous dominant, heterozygous or homozygous recessive.

    3. You can only determine this with certainty by performing a test cross.
    We should mention that, as a breeder, you should be dealing with a large population in order to be certain of the results.The more plants you work with, the more reliable the results.

    Hardy-Weinberg Law, Part 2
    The question may arise: "How do I breed for several traits, like taste, smell, vigor and color?" To answer this question, you will need to learn more about the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium.
    If you breed two plants that are heterozygous (Bb) for a trait, what will the offspring look like? The Punnett squares can help us determine the phenotypes, genotypes and gene frequencies of the offspring.

    1 BB - 25% of the offspring will be homozygous for the dominant allele (BB)
    2 Bb - 50% will be heterozygous, like their parents (Bb) 1 bb - 25% will be homozygous for the recessive allele (bb)
    Unlike their parents (Bb and Bb), 25 percent of offspring will express the recessive phenotype bb. So two parents that display Golden Bud but are both heterozygous (Bb) for that trait will produce offspring that exhibit the recessive Silver Bud trait, despite the fact that neither of the parents displays the phenotype for Silver Bud.

    Understanding how recessive and dominant traits are passed down through the phenotype and genotype so that you can predict the outcome of a cross and lock down traits in future generations is really what breeding is all about.

    When you breed a strain, how do you know that the traits you want to keep will actually be retained in the breeding process? This is where the test cross comes in. If you create seeds from a strain that you bought from a seed bank, how can you be sure that the offspring will exhibit the characteristics that you like? If the trait you wish to continue is homozygous dominant (BB) in both parent plants then there's no way that you can produce a recessive genotype for that trait in the offspring, as illustrated in the Punnett square below.

    In order to breed a trait properly you must know if it is homozygous, heterozygous or homozygous recessive so that you can predict the results before they happen.

    Mendel and the Pea Experiments
    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was an Austrian monk who discovered the basic rules of inheritance by analyzing the results from his plant breeding research programs. He noticed that two types of pea plants gave very uniform results when bred within their own gene pools and not with one another.

    He noticed that the offspring all carried the same traits when they bred with the same population or gene pool. Since there were no variations within each strain he guessed that both strains were homozygous for these traits. Because the pea plants were from the same species, Mendel guessed that either the solid seed shells were recessive or the wrinkled seed shells were recessive. Using the genotype notations SS for solid seed shells and ss for wrinkled seed shells, he knew that they couldn't be Ss because one lot didn't exhibit any of the other strain's phenotypes when bred within its own gene pool.
    Let's illustrate this using two basic Punnett squares where SS is pea plant #1 with the trait for solid seed shells and ss is pea plant #2 with the trait for wrinkled seed shells.

    Up until this point, he didn't know which trait was recessive and which was dominant. Since all the seeds shells were solid, he now know with certainty that pea plant #1 contained the dominant genotype for solid seed shells and pea plant #2 contained the recessive genotype for wrinkled seed shells. This meant that in future test crosses with other pea strains, he could determine if a particular seed shell trait was homozygous or heterozygous because he had identified the recessive trait (ss).

    The Second Hybrid Cross (the F2 Generation)
    The offspring in the Fl cross were all Ss. When Mendel crossed these offspring
    he got the following results:
    F2 Cross

    *Take special note of this offspring and compare with parents.
    Mendel had mated two pea plants that were heterozygous (e.g., Ss) for a seed shell trait. In this group, the resulting offspring were:
    25% of the offspring were homozygous for the dominant allele (SS) 50% were heterozygous, like their parents (Ss) 25% were homozygous for the recessive allele (ss)
    In his first cross to create the hybrid plant, Mendel ended up with no recessive traits for seed shape. But when he crossed the offspring, because they were heterozygous for that trait, he ended up with some having the homozygous recessive trait, some having the homozygous dominant trait and some continuing the heterozygous trait. In correct breeding terms his first cross between the plants is called the Fl cross or Fl generation.The breeding out of those offspring is called the F2 cross or F2 generation.

    Now since he has Ss, ss and SS to work with you could use Punnett squares to determine what the next generations of offspring will look like. Compare your results with what you have learned about ratios and you'll be able to see how it all fits together.

    More on Genetic Frequencies
    Take a look at the cross below between two heterozygous parents. If two heterozygous parents are crossed, the frequency ratio of the alleles will be 50% each. Remember the genotype can be Ss; SS or ss, but the allele is either VS' or Y.

    We can see S S S S (4 x S) and s s s s (4 x s). This means that the frequency of the allele 'S' is 50% and the frequency of the allele V is 50%. See if you can calculate the frequencies of the alleles *S'and Y in the following crosses for yourself.

    Recall that the Hardy-Weinberg law states that the sum of all the alleles in a population should equal 100 percent, but the individual alleles may appear in different ratios. There are five situations that can cause the law of equilibrium to fail. These are discussed next
    1. MUTATION. A mutation is a change in genetic material, which can give rise to heritable variations in the offspring. Exposure to radiation can cause genetic mutation, for example. In this case the result would be a mutation of the plant's genetic code that would be transferred to its offspring. The effect is equivalent to a migration of foreign genetic material being introduced into the population. There are other factors that can cause mutations. Essentially a mutation is the result of DNA repair failure at the cellular level. Anything that causes DNA repair to fail can result in a mutation.

    2. GENE MIGRATION. Over time, a population will reach equilibrium that will be maintained as long as no other genetic material migrates into the population. When new genetic material is introduced from another population, this is called introgression. During the process of introgression many new traits can arise in the original population, resulting in a shift in equilibrium.

    3. GENETIC DRIFT. If a population is small, equilibrium is more easily violated, because a slight change in the number of alleles results in a significant change in genetic frequency. Even by chance alone certain traits can be eliminated from the population and the frequency of alleles can drift toward higher or lower values. Genetic drift is actually an evolutionary force that alters a population and demonstrates that the Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium cannot hold true over an indefinite period of time.

    4. NON-RANDOM MATING. External or internal factors may influence a population to a point at which mating is no longer random. For example, if some female flowers develop earlier than others they will be able to gather pollen earlier than the rest. If some of the males release pollen early and then stop producing pollen, the mating between these early males and females is not random, and could result in late-flowering females ending up as a sinsemilla crop. This means that these late-flowering females won't be able to make their contribution to the gene pool in future generations. Equilibrium will not be maintained.

    5. NATURAL SELECTION. With regards to natural selection, the environment and other factors can cause certain plants to produce a greater or smaller number of offspring. Some plants may have traits that make them less immune to disease, for example, meaning that when the population is exposed to disease, less of their offspring will survive to pass on genetic material, while others may produce more seeds or exhibit a greater degree of immunity, resulting in a greater number of offspring surviving to contribute genetic material to the population.
    Breeding and growing herb (growing marijuana) strains is all about manipulating gene frequencies. Most strains sold by reputable breeders through seed banks are very uniform in growth. This means that the breeder has attempted to lock certain genes down so that the genotypes of those traits are homozygous.

    Imagine that a breeder has two strains: Master Kush and Silver Haze. The breeder lists a few traits that they particularly like (denoted by *).

    This means they want to create a plant that is homozygous for the following traits and call it something like Silver Kush.

    Silver Kush
    Pale green leaf Hashy smell Silver flowers Short plants
    All the genetics needed are contained in the gene pools for Master Kush and Silver Haze.The breeder could simply mix both populations and hope for the best or try to save time, space and money by calculating the genotype for each trait and using the results to create an IBL.

    The first thing the breeder must do is to understand the genotype of each trait that will be featured in ideal "Silver Kush" strain. In order to do this the genotype of each parent strain for that same trait must be understood. Since there are four traits that the breeder is trying to isolate, and 4x2 = 8, eight alleles make up the genotypes for these phenotype expressions and must be made known to the breeder.

    Let's take the pale green leaf of the Silver Haze for starters. The breeder will grow out as many Silver Haze plants as possible, noting if any plants in the population display other leaf colors. If they do not, the breeder can assume that the trait is either homozygous dominant (SS) or recessive (ss). If other leaf colors appear within the population, the breeder must assume that the trait is heterozygous (Ss) and must be locked down through selective breeding. Let's look closely at the parents for a moment.

    If both parents were SS there wouldn't be any variation in the population for this trait. It would already be locked-down and would always breed true without any variations.

    With one SS parent and one Ss parent, the breeder would produce a 50:50 population — one group being homozygous (SS) and the other heterozygous (Ss).

    If both parents were Ss, the breeder would have 25 percent SS, 50 percent Ss and 25 percent ss. Even though gene frequencies can be predicted, the breeder will not know with certainty whether the pale green leaf trait is dominant or recessive until they perform a test cross. By running several test crosses the breeder can isolate the plant that is either SS or ss and eliminate any Ss from the group. Once the genotype has been isolated and the population reduced to contain only plants with the same genotype, the breeding program can begin in earnest. Remember that the success of any herb growing and breeding program hinges on the breeder maintaining accurate records about parent plants and their descendants so that they can control gene frequencies.

    Let's say that you run a seed bank company called PALE GREEN LEAF ONLY BUT EVERYTHING ELSE IS NOT UNIFORM LTD. The seeds that you create will all breed pale green leaves and the customer will be happy. In reality, customers want the exact same plant that won the herb cup last year or at least something very close. So in reality, you will have to isolate all the ^winning' traits before customers will be satisfied with what they're buying.

    The number of tests it takes to know any given genotype isn't certain. You may have to use a wide selection of plants to achieve the goal, but nevertheless it is still achievable. The next step in a breeding program is to lock down other traits in that same population. Here is the hard part.

    When you are working on locking down a trait you must not eliminate other desirable traits from the population. It is also possible to accidentally lock down an unwanted trait or eliminate desired traits if you are not careful. If this happens then you'll have to work harder to explore genotypes through multiple cross tests and lock down the desired traits. Eventually, through careful selection and record keeping you'll end up with a plant that breeds true for all of the features that you want. In essence, you will have your own genetic map of your herb plants.

    Successful breeders don't try to map everything at once. Instead, they concentrate on the main phenotypes that will make their plant unique and of a high quality. Once they have locked down four or five traits they can move on. True breeding strains are created slowly, in stages. Well known true breeding strains like Skunk#l and Afghani#l took as long as 20 years to develop. If anyone states that they developed a true breeding strain in one or two years you can be sure that the genetics they started with were true breeding, homozygous, in the first place.

    Eventually you will have your Silver Kush strain but only with the four genotypes that you wanted to keep. You may still have a variety of non-uniform plants in the group. Some may have purple stems, while others may have green stems. Some may be very potent and others not so potent. By constantly selecting for desired traits you could theoretically manipulate the strain into a true breeding strain for every phenotype. However, it is extremely unlikely that anyone will ever create a 100 percent true breeding strain for every single phenotype. Such a strain would be called a perfect IBL. If you're able to lock down 90 percent of the plant's phenotypes in a population then you can claim that your plant is an IBL.

    The core idea behind the true breeding technique is to find what is known as a donor plant. A donor plant is one that contains a true breeding trait (homozygous, preferably dominant for that trait). The more locked down traits are homozygous dominant the better your chances of developing an IBL, which does not mean that the line of genetics will be true breeding for every trait, but rather that the strain is very uniform in growth for a high percentage of phenotypes.

    Some additional advanced marijuana growing and breeding techniques that will help you to reduce or promote a trait in a population are discussed below. Using these techniques may not create a plant that is true breeding for the selected traits, but will certainly help to make the population more uniform for that trait.

    end of excerpts

    thanks guys :)

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    1. Gibberellic Acid
    2. inbreeding?
    3. Collecting Pollen simplified
    4. Quantitative Genetics Article (Interesting Read)
    5. Welcome!
    6. New to Breeding?
    7. Choosing a male
    8. I just want some seeds...
    9. Breeders Links
    10. In practice...
    11. hybrid vigor
    12. i have created a new strain!!!!!!
    13. Question bout Seeds??
    14. Got Pollen?
    15. Pollenation Readiness Pictorial Guide
    16. pot plant sex change???
    17. Breading WhiteWidow with Shaman
    18. Feminized Seeds...
    19. Making more of the same strain/.
    20. outdoor breeding/cold weather
    21. Space
    22. Seed cultivation/preservation
    23. Making a few seeds...
    24. pollen storage
    25. I got a simple approach to breeding, other ppl do this?
    26. pollination question
    27. How do I make my male flowers open?
    28. High tech pollen collection device?
    29. Breeding for beginners
    30. Destined to be Hermies?
    31. creating a hybrid
    32. how late can pollen be collected?
    33. thc level
    34. How long to pollenate
    35. How do I know when seeds are mature??
    36. polinate pre-flowers?
    37. perfect plant, but male. breed?
    38. Need to breed instead of buy.
    39. How do growers insure potency of future seeds?
    40. question about breeding
    41. Anyone have pics of a recently pollinated plant?
    42. pollinating buds -when is too late?-
    43. Polin??
    44. Is IT possible(READ)???????????
    45. I bred a hermie with itself and a sativa.
    46. Seed Cultivation
    47. how can you make your own strain or make a different strain?
    48. Do i have Time to make seeds?
    49. f1 or f2??
    50. Crossing MJ
    51. I selected my p1
    52. making an "Early" strain
    53. hermie seeds result in hermie plants?
    54. Pollen time?
    55. Wanting to make male
    56. Base Strains
    57. Do I need a lot of plants to start?
    58. what to do with my male(s)
    59. breeding question please help
    60. 3 way cross
    61. Planing on Breeding for seeds
    62. f2's
    63. yield in seeds.
    64. Phenotypes?
    65. Pollinating Preflowers
    66. Ww X Bg
    67. Seed in clone bud?
    68. blue heaven seed making
    69. Heay All Hate To Open a new thread BUT
    70. pollinating--12\12-or-back to veg
    71. skunk no.1
    72. crossing and female seeds from hermie pollen
    73. Help! I Want Seeds!
    74. Breeding Cannabis
    75. How to get pollen
    76. Crossing Spicy with Sweet
    77. Help with pollenation
    78. Fresh pollen how long is it good for?
    79. does any one know how to do this.
    80. This what usually happens after pollination?
    81. Humbolt County Homegrown cross with unknown Sativa
    82. cross breading species!?
    83. Breeding Seeds From Seed Companies
    84. WW own seeds.
    85. Noob question. About breeding.
    86. maturety
    87. Characteristics of a new strain
    88. Seed Maturation.
    89. Would a Hermaphrodite Produce all Female seeds
    90. Pollenating
    91. Female Pollen?
    92. is this a pollinated bud?
    93. Selective Pollination Advanced Questions
    94. Clone or Breed?
    95. Hybrid Crossings
    96. How do you tell when seeds are fully developed?
    97. when is there viable pollen?
    98. pollonation off a hermaphrodite plant
    99. Male selection.......
    100. Make your own strain?
    101. new strains
    102. F1 F2 question?
    103. 2 studs 1 female ?
    104. How long the pistils remain fertils?
    105. get seeds from growing weed
    106. Crossbreeding with seeds Directs Skunk#1 ,yes ,no ?
    107. f1 plus f2 equals f what
    108. smaller mums/fathers/clone donors
    109. stabilizing strain without original mother plant
    110. back crossing
    111. do any of you Self pollenate the flowers?
    112. Entropy
    113. Here's a test thread
    114. Controlled Pollenation Project
    115. Lifesaver is my Medical Strain!!!
    116. For Those Interested in BOG Genetics
    117. Bonzai Marijuana
    118. Pollen In a Bag
    119. Welcome!!
    120. My Way... BOG means Bonanza of Green!
    121. ferts for seeding?
    122. Breeding Strains
    123. How Much Pollen Should I Apply To The Females?
    124. breeding my babies
    125. Super Silver Haze x Lowryder
    126. 2 Fathers?
    127. Lifesaver Daddy........ pollen quality?.
    128. Will It Pollinte All Of Them?
    129. My "Mujahedin" strain
    130. need help?
    131. pollinating buds question on potency
    132. How do you make it go hermie?
    133. Get the most out of seeds..
    134. 3 weeks pregnant
    135. male pollen
    136. Sexing Plants
    137. Self pollination
    138. Pollination Question
    139. swazi red beard x c99 question
    140. BinLaden Weed?
    141. Best way to harvest seeds?
    142. Hermies
    143. Blueberry x Hollands hope
    144. pollination
    145. how to produce an F1
    146. amount of light needed to allow formation of seeds
    147. Choosing a Male?
    148. Growing Feminized Seeds the professional way
    149. Makin' a hermie for seed production
    150. Hybrid, hybrid, hybrid, etc.
    151. When do i pollenate my girls for seeds...
    152. Polination only one plant?
    153. making a male how's it done?
    154. whats are strains and like cross breeding,help
    155. Is it possible the harvest and store male pollen?
    156. The coolest-looking plant EVER?
    157. Banana's for seed's
    158. stress during flower
    159. Finding seeds in Sydney, Australia...
    160. how do i make seeds from my all females
    161. Male Shooting Blanks
    162. My first breeding project is in progress
    163. F1 x IBL = Hybrid Vigor?
    164. Best Breeding Results
    165. Breeding
    166. Stabelizing
    167. Growing males
    168. Breeding?
    169. outdoor seeds production
    170. Fast veg breeding
    171. Feminized seeds
    172. Hermies self pollinate?
    173. Purple Pot
    174. Is my clone a genetic dead-end?
    175. pollinating, then reveg?
    176. Nevels Haze
    177. Hermie Question
    178. anybody willing to give up some bagseed for a first grow?
    179. can a hermie pollinate a whole garden?
    180. Cannibus Cup
    181. Is there such a hybrid?
    182. Does hermie pollin make hermie prone seeds
    183. i have heard using dark bag to make a brach a male
    184. 2nd strongest strain?
    185. BB X WW making the cross
    186. Mature Seeds?
    187. my theory
    188. DJ Short speaking on Breeding
    189. DJ Short's Cataloguing System
    190. %%% male to female %%%
    191. Saving pollen.
    192. how to tell if a seed is mature
    193. Breeder's History
    194. female plants from male plant seeds?
    195. Number of seeds
    196. Indica x Unknown?
    197. bag seed
    198. dummy breeding 101
    199. Are seeds from a light-induced hermaphrodite hermaphroditic?
    200. Making Strawberry Kush?
    201. Experience's with hermie pollinated seeds
    202. Hermies !?
    203. all female seed's
    204. New books.
    205. estimated seed production??
    206. think its ok to apply pollen WET???
    207. COME ALONG! The Magical Mr. E. Tour
    208. growing seeds...
    209. COME ALONG! The Magical Mr. E. Tour
    210. Can someone explain the whole f1 f2 hybrid thing to me?
    211. A X B = ?
    212. Storing Pollen
    213. I'm going to attempt to breed :)
    214. Reproducing
    215. true breading
    216. a quick question
    217. a couple of trics i learned
    218. Strain Pollen Banks ???
    219. dutchmen's fumar growers
    220. growing
    221. back breeding?
    222. Citadel <sp> mix pheno ?
    223. breeding
    224. Genetics: is that my brother uncle daddy?
    225. when`s to late for flemales to make seeds?
    226. Choosing an IBL for use as a Top Cross
    227. Choosing a Male Breeding Partner
    228. Multiple donors...
    229. Al Green, A couple glasses of wine and a candle. Sexing Questions
    230. swabbed on pollen
    231. STS formula to make femed seeds.
    232. Breeding idea
    233. Painting a bud with male pollen
    234. Pollen Shelf Life
    235. Critical Mass X White Russian?
    236. C99 x Bubblegum
    237. Males Extinct?
    238. Pollenating clones?
    239. Newb Q???
    240. Sufficiently pollinated? How much pollen..?
    241. what exactly IS breeding? i dont get it
    242. Breeding for Selective Qualties: evolving a strain.
    243. when will he be ready?
    244. has anyone tried to reveg a male?
    245. storeing pollen
    246. New Strain Project... from scratch
    247. Making a seed plant...
    248. i want to breed seeds for next season?
    249. Pollination across seperate species of plants?
    250. Question about seeds... (pic)

    1. males not releasing pollen ?
    2. Reversing sex of a female to obtain seed.
    3. Male Hermie
    4. will the...
    5. Quick question
    6. Will my seeds be hermie?
    7. Collecting pollen from a DWC male.
    8. Manual Pollination Question
    9. Indoor seed production.
    10. How Long does Pollen Live?
    11. best way to feminize seeds?
    12. Cloning....Hybrids???
    13. Timing for Early Flower
    14. seed trees
    15. Making feminised seeds
    16. selecting a male.....
    17. best cross
    18. Aspirin for inducing chemical mutation?
    19. Plant Breeding as a Hobby
    20. Skunk69 x White WidowXXX
    21. question about breeding
    22. Feminizing with a banana peel??
    23. what are you working on
    24. Growing for seeds.
    25. seeds
    26. Mixing pollen
    27. Collecting and Storing Pollen
    28. How long to make viable seeds?
    29. Too Early?
    30. big bud
    31. Q's about creating seeds
    32. How much longer for viable seed?
    33. Mdanzig is back
    34. Confused . . . Hey Experts, please help me out =)
    35. its a Hermi!
    36. heavy blurple x strain 4
    37. Are these seeds ready? Pics inside
    38. Is Mom 1st generation?
    39. The Species Question...3 Little Birds Repost
    40. Sativa Afghani Genetic Equilibrium
    41. LR crosses
    42. Pollinating
    43. This is serious
    44. breeding
    45. Male Plant/Female Plant
    46. whatcan i do to get a male
    47. What is wrong with Hermie Seeds?
    48. Runt shows sex after 2 days of 12/12..
    49. Hermaphroditism
    50. What To Do With My Little Boy?
    51. crossing sour bub and jilly bean got some ?s
    52. mendel's laws
    53. crystal n kush
    54. What does a pollenated plant look like?
    55. Mendel's Parents
    56. Ideas on new strains/hybridizing....!
    57. male hermie
    58. Can I breed autoflower seeds?
    59. breeding guide
    60. What would it be
    61. For those who know White Widow
    62. Breeding & Bushmaster
    63. Did I Make Feminized Seeds?
    64. Best way to turn a plant male?
    65. male isolation chamber
    66. Pollinating
    67. Choosing a Male?
    68. Male/Female Genetic Traits
    69. Is it possible.....
    70. Doubling Chromosome Content
    71. breeding help please
    72. When to harvest pollen?
    73. question about pollenation
    74. all the way..
    75. Pre Flowers
    76. Pollen Storage????
    77. normal male w/ fem female
    78. breeding f1's
    79. F1 hybrid
    80. Interested in developing own strain...
    81. breeding with lowryder#2
    82. polyploids
    83. Capture Male Pollen with a Pollen Cone
    84. Breeding with bagseed
    85. breeding links
    86. seed questions...
    87. Seed Development
    88. Pollen life??
    89. lowryder#2 x jilly bean
    90. Need Pollen...
    91. Looking fo a example of early pollinated buds...
    92. need the CS method low down
    93. Safe pollen collecting in a room full of females
    94. Feminizing seeds
    95. triploid jillybean x lowryder#2
    96. Colloidal Silver Question !
    97. ? the very basics
    98. Seed Question
    99. Question about breeding !
    100. does a hermaphrodite produce the sea of green?
    101. Apollo 11 G4 x Mazar
    102. Force pollen sacks to open?
    103. Male Indica and Female Sativa.....what would i get?
    104. Where Do I Find Gabrillic Acid?
    105. When can i gather pollen from my male?
    106. how many generations?
    107. Pollen collection techniques?
    108. Harvest indicator for seed viability
    109. inducing a hermie
    110. Hermie polinating Female.
    111. male lowryder hand pollination?
    112. pollen filter
    113. I want to grow autos exclusively, but seeds are expensive!
    114. How do I make my own strain?
    115. Question of Genetics
    116. How potent is pollen, how much is needed to knock up a bud?
    117. Non-hermie seeds with feminised female?
    118. using colloidal silver
    119. My Wee Thoughts On Breeding!
    120. Is it possible to Light Pollute an Auto???
    121. how to catch pollen????
    122. Outdoor breeding?
    123. Multiple breeds
    124. making seeds as fast as possible
    125. Need Info!
    126. Pollen for Keeps
    127. Name my seed....
    128. Chances seeds will be hermies
    129. Show off your purple males!
    130. Seed Run
    131. pollination
    132. Pollination questions
    133. methods of making fem seeds?
    134. Breeding Question
    135. Can the average Joe create female Seeds ?
    136. Purple Ducksfoot Breeding Project
    137. Seeds

    thanks to

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    [email protected]#$ it im done

    anything else check the growfaq or google or something i been goin at this for ages lol

    DaGambler likes this.

    whulkamania Well-Known Member

    I can not read this with you're size 4 text size.

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    it was size 2 the default for this forum.. i made it one size bigger its now size 3 hope it helps :)

    thanks man it actually too a while believe it or not although the only part i can take credit for is the jesters note... the rest was just a time consuming copy paste and neaten up job..

    but thanks bro you my friend get a rep for the kind words ;)

    cant rep ya gtta spread some love sorry man :(
    jgreenbeast and las fingerez like this.

    holmes Well-Known Member

    this is perfect, i have been wanting to read up on this and you put all the info on this page for me. thanks man
    Jester88 likes this.

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    no probs thanks for the compliment... makes it feel like it wasnt such a waste of time

    heres a rep :)
    holmes likes this.
    It's 5 o'clock somewhere

    It's 5 o'clock somewhere Well-Known Member

    Totally not a waste of time. I have the same problem with the rep deal. I keep to a small circle of friends on here and need to do a repping rampage on all their threads so I can pass out to them again.....
    mr west and Jester88 like this.

    holmes Well-Known Member

    i usually dont bother to give rep points, its not that it probably is deserved. Its just that my head does not go there.
    but well deserved in this case.

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    thanks ppl. yeah i keep to a certain few ppl too. appart from helping newbies when i can that is.

    i was researching breeding so i thought i might as well post about it while i looked lol..

    this is for you guys :joint:

    powerisknowlege and FileError404 like this.

    Hob10 Well-Known Member


    Greate read its been a good learning tool!
    Jester88 likes this.

    powerisknowlege Well-Known Member

    make this bitch a permanent!!!! Plus reps.
    Jester88 likes this.

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    thanks im glad ppl have found his useful
    It's 5 o'clock somewhere

    It's 5 o'clock somewhere Well-Known Member

    Sticky..... got my vote. Final chop pic's..... check it

    Jester88 Well-Known Member


    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    Marijuana LIVES!

    This basic botany lesson is going to turn into a basic genetics lesson. Why? Because the reasons for doing certain activities in hand-pollination and seed-saving are based in the genetics of the plants you are working with.
    All of us have heard of Gregor Mendel, the monk who discovered genetics by watching what happened when he crossed purple-flowered, tall, wrinkled-seeded (sweet) peas with dwarf, white-flowered, round-seeded (starchy) peas. First of all, Mendel was lucky. (Not that he would have called it luck …). But his choice of plant species made his life and his discovery much easier. Why? Because the pea is an IB species! He started with very uniform material, because peas inbreed very rapidly because they are virtually 100% self-pollinating. And for that very reason, once he made the original cross, the following generations were "automatically" produced by self-pollination. All that Mendel had to do was to grow them out, watch what happened, collect seeds, and do it again. However, his choice could have been easier to work with. Crossing legumes is not easy because of the way the flower is built: pollen is shed before the flower opens, the filaments are all wrapped around the style, and the flower is relatively small. To successfully hand-pollinate pea flowers as Mendel did without magnification is truly remarkable. But, peas tolerate damage to the style during hand-pollination so that even if Mendel had broken the style and then placed cross-pollen on the "stump", cross-pollination probably would have occurred successfully. Mendel made his crosses, collected seed, and the next season, grew out that seed. What happened? All of the progeny resembled one of the two parents. All of the peas were tall plants, with purple flowers, and having smooth seeds. It was at this point that Mendel made history. He saved seed from this first generation of crosses, his first F1 generation.
    Now, let's get some definitions straight. The seed Mendel produced when he made the cross was F1 seed. The "F" stands for "filial generation", and means "generation of siblings". "F1" means "first generation". F1 seed produces a population of F1 plants. Now, if those plants are self-pollinated (and in peas, this was easy), the selfed-seed harvested from the F1s is now second generation seed, or F2 seed. Mendel grew out his F2 seed, and everything went crazy. He got tall plants, he got dwarf plants, some had purple flowers, some had white flowers, round seeds, wrinkled seeds. And the characters switched all around. He got dwarf plants with white flowers and smooth seeds. He got dwarf plants with white flowers --- and wrinkled seeds. All possible combinations of the characters that he looked for occurred in this generation. Including plants that were exactly like the original parents. Why? Well, the best answer needs a little more biology, and we'll get to that next. But Mendel's answer to this question was basically right on the mark. Mendel said that somehow the characters (size, flower color, seed shape) assorted "independently".
    What this "independent assortment" means is that in a cross, everything gets mixed up randomly. He also said that some characters are stronger than others, so that in the first generation, the strong characters are visible, and the weak characters are hidden. The independent assortment of these strong and weak characters only becomes visible in the second self-pollinated generation.
    Now, we need to have a little more biology. Every organism is made up of many cells. The activity of each cell seems to be controlled by a structure located generally in the center of each cell called a nucleus. Within the cell's nucleus are contained the chromosomes (at least in higher plants and animals), and within every chromosome are the cell's genes. Chromosomes are made up of a chemical known as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and some protein. The chromosomes form a binary (two-part) system, and Mendel was lucky that they do. The characters that Mendel followed are alternative states in this binary system. In pea, Mendel examined tall versus dwarf plant size. He examined purple versus white flower color. Mendel compared smooth versus wrinkled seeds. These characters are called phenotypes, and a plant's phenotype is generally something visible: white flowers, dwarf size, wrinkled seed. In Mendel's system, phenotypes exist as two-part alternative states, and a geneticist would call the gene that controls each alternative state an allele. In this system, there are two alleles possible for any one gene at any one time. When both alleles are the same, the genotype (or genetic combination) is called homozygous ("homo" meaning "same"). When the alleles are different, the genotype is considered heterozygous ("hetero" meaning "different").
    Back to Mendel. His original plants were homozygous, and for all of the characters he examined. How could he tell? Because each generation resembled the one before it. Inbred species (or inbred plants) produce progeny that very closely resemble the parents. The more the inbreeding (the more homozygosity), the more close the resemblance. So Mendel crossed two different homozygous genotypes, which appeared to be phenotypically uniform. And he produced F1 seed. So what happened? For every character in which his parental plants differed, the F1 was heterozygous! When you cross different homozygous lines, you get heterozygotes! Even more important, in the F1, every plant is the same. Every plant in the F1 generation is identical to every other plant. Every plant is a heterozygote, and all of the alleles are mixed at random. But every individual plant in the F1 population is uniform, and identical to every other plant. To a geneticist, the F1 generation has zero variability (every plant is the same), but also has the maximum heterozygosity (every possible combination of alleles is present).
    As tedious as it was to get to this point, this is probably the most critical point of any discussion about saving seed. F1s are uniform, but in their seed is a tremendous amount of variation. Back to Mendel again. What happened with Mendel's F1? It was uniform, without variation. And "only the strong characters were visible." You just read that the F1 is a heterozygote, with two different alleles present for each gene. Why then is only the strong character visible? The real answer is very complicated, and there are actually many correct real answers. The simplest explanation is that the strong character hides the weak character. A geneticist calls this strong character the dominant character, and the allele causing the dominant character the dominant allele. Alternatively, the weak character is called the recessive character, and the recessive character is caused by the recessive allele.
    In Mendel's original cross, tall is dominant over dwarf. Purple flowers are dominant over white flowers. Smooth seeds are dominant over the recessive wrinkled seeds. In Mendel's F1, the dominant characters are the ones that are visible. The dominant characters make up the phenotype of the F1. Mendel created an F2, and found all possibilities in variation. An F2 has the maximum amount of genetic variation possible. How does this occur? Through independent assortment. The alleles in each F1 are mixed randomly during meiosis, so that each sperm or egg cell is different from every other. These highly variable cells fuse during fertilization to produce every possible combination. If the F1 contains every possible combination of alleles, and those combinations are hidden by dominance, then the F2 expresses every possible combination, including those recessive characters previously hidden.
    I have asked you to think about only three genes, and only two alleles for each gene. Reality is much more complicated. Other possibilities do exist. Neither allele may be dominant, and a cross between a red flower and a white flower may give you an in-between pink as a result. This is called co-dominance, or non-dominance. In many cases, each allele present gives an incremental response, so that an additive pattern develops. This can be extended across many genes controlling the same phenotype, so that additive effects can be very minor for each allele, but can accumulate and produce major effects. This is considered quantitative inheritance --- but at each gene, the inheritance is precisely the same as that for Mendel's genes. There can be many possible alleles for each gene. Only two at a time in any individual, but many possible combinations do exist.
    And finally, three is about as many possibilities as I can handle in my mind at one time. Three genes, and two alleles each, gives a total of 64 different possibilities in an F2. The reality is that there are hundreds of thousands of genes operating in a plant at the same time, and that there may be many possible alleles in a given population of plants. The combinations that are actually possible are truly mind-boggling.

    umm i think this came from the mellowgold website.. heres a big thanks to them :)

    oh i know this has been covered heaps but the ore ways its written the more people will understand it

    peace out

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