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A MUST READ!!! THC percentages of a strain explained and some other useful info

Discussion in 'Advanced Marijuana Cultivation' started by Jester88, Apr 28, 2009.

  1.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    CANNABIS CHEMISTRY

    Disclaimer: It is tentatively and currently illegal to perform physical research on cannabis or marijuana extracts without a federal license. The information on Cannabis-Science.com is for educational purposes only.


    How Satellites Spot Cannabis Plants
    Satellites can measure differences in the intensity and exact color of light reflected by plants. Each species has a unique signature and satellites can automatically sift through images and flag them for human inspection. Consider also that the same technology could done with infrared data toward buildings despite the invasion of privacy. A warmer building amongst a group of cooler buildings may flag the image, analogous to utilities companies reporting high electricity usage vs. peers.​
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    Glandular trichomes contain most of the cannabinoids and essential oils responsible for therapeutic effect, aroma & flavor.

    Cannabinoid Molecular Structures w/ Decarboxylation

    How Scientists Measure Cannabinoid Content in Marijuana



    [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana - Cannabis Science[/FONT]

    [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] Marijuana Arrests Investigator - Cannabinoids[/FONT]
    [FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif] NORML Audio Stash Marijuana Research Cannabis Facts[/FONT]
    Cannabinoid Molecular Structures

    CBN-Cannabinol, Properties

    Vaporization Boiling Points (C/F)
    THC - 200/392​
    THCA - ​
    THCV ​
    CBD - 180/356​
    CBN - 185/365​
    CBDA​
    CBC - 220/428​
    Myrcene​
    Linalool​
    Citral A/B
    d-limonene - 177 / 351​
    ß-caryophyllene - 119 / 246
    ß-myrcene - 168 / 334​
    a-pinene - 156 / 313​



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    To measure cannabinoid content one must first separate them from a liquid mixture that contains all the other extractable oils. This separation is done by chroma-tography using several milligrams of biomass. Here are three kinds of chromatography, GC, LC and TLC... GC being the best since it can also measure all of the volatile compounds, which includes aroma & flavor molecules such as terpenes, esters and alkanes...​
    Primer on Gas Chromatography - Pictures, Parts and Theory.Stumble-Through by Cannabis Science.

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    Gas Chromatograph Flowpath
    A gas chromatograph is a programmable oven. A thin, hollow glass coil is placed inside. The inside surface of the coil ("column") is lined with various chemicals that attract certain types of molecules. The upstream end of the column terminates at the injector and the downstream end connects at the detector. At all times an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium flows through the system slowly. ​
    A measured amount of liquid solvent extract of cannabis is injected into the injector, which is around 325C. The solvent and all of the oils in the sample flash evaporate into a vapor cloud. The flowing gas through the system carries a portion of the mixed vapor cloud to the column, where everything is adsorbed. The temperature of the programmable oven is gradually increased to a desired setpoint. As the temperature goes up, the different types of molecules that adsorbed onto the glass column start to evaporate one-by-one. Each compound (THC, CBD, etc.) continues traveling in the stream of gas and enters the detector.​
    Detectors come in many varieties. In this example our GC has two detectors combined: FID/MS - Flame Ionization and Mass Spectrometer. The vapor cloud enters the FID, which is a flame that puts charge on the molecule, and that charge can be measured electronically. The result is a chart called a chromatogram (below). The more volatile, lower boiling molecules came off first and would be represented by the first couple peaks. The compounds with higher boiling points (b.p.) will elute later, represented later in time, farther to the right in the chromatogram.​
    The MS (mass spectrometry) detector is a device that accepts a side stream of the vapor cloud and bombards the molecules with a beam of electrons. This electron bombardment causes the molecules to break apart into somewhat predictable fragments. By way of gremlins, each fragment proceeds to rapidly pass through a magnetic field that deflects the molecules to one side. The bigger the fragment, the lesser it is affected by the magnet since it has more momentum, so it hits the target sensor in a different place. The amount of deflection is proportional to the mass of the fragment. So, we end up knowing the molecular weight of the pieces, and by adding them up we can determine the weight of the intact molecule, and other information about the structure. This data is compared to a library of pre-existing data to find a match.​
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    Chromatogram (above): Graphic Results of Chromatography - Each peak represents a compound/molecule (i.e. THC, Citral A, CBD, Myrcene)

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    Headspace GC Chromatogram: Green House Seed Company in Amsterdam - Utilizes a vaporizor-like device to produce the vapor cloud. This chromatogram shows many of the terpenes responsible for flavor, aroma and therapeutic benefit present in the variety called "Arjan's Haze".
    Liquid Chromatography (LC)

    LC uses liquid solvents to help separate the mixture, similar to how GC uses heat and gas flow. Both LC and GC absorb all the compounds onto a solid mineral and then strips them off one-by-one. LC often uses a UV detector, sometimes couped with the MS detector. With some types of molecules, when a UV light is shined at them, they will absorb or reflect the light, which can be measured and helps identify them. Intensity of the 'reflected' light can tell how much compound is present.
    A 3rd kind of chromatography is TLC...
    THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY (TLC)

    TLC gives a visual picture, and sometimes measurement, of which compounds are present in an extract. With TLC, the many compounds are individually separated from the extract/mixutre.
    First, a dehydrated sample is powdered and mixed with solvent to dissolve many of the chemicals. Solvent choice is key.
    Imagine a glass plate (10 x 10cm) that is coated with a thin layer of powdered silica, the same stuff in packets to absorb moisture in food and new shoes. TLC plates are commercially available pre-coated with all kinds of fancy minerals that perform specific separations. Across the plate a pencil line is drawn horizontally, 1cm from the bottom.
    From the liquid extract a capillary or needle is used to drip a fraction of a drop onto the line that is drawn on the TLC plate. The droplet will evaporate, leaving behind a dry green spot. Next the TLC plate is placed into a jar with lid, standing vertically. Already in the jar is a specific solvent or solvent mixture. The solvent level must be below pencil line on the TLC plate. The liquid, over time, will be drawn to the top of the plate (capillary action, like a paper towel).
    Once the upwardly mobile solvent passes the line, each component gets separated based on how attracted to the silica coating it is. Compounds not attracted to the silica will travel with the solvent to the top of the plate. Compounds that are polar will not, they stay closer to the pencil line, moving more slowly. The result is the compounds/dots getting stretched apart from one another. Ideally, we get individual dots that range between the pencil line and the top of the plate, where the solvent stopped.
    In practice, TLC plates must be "developed" in order to see all of the spots. Sometimes shining a UV light on the plate reveals invisible spots.
    The position of the spot(s) is compared to reported values, or to known compounds (called 'standards', ex: pure THC) to verify which chemical the spot represents.
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    TLC Chromatogram - Developed TLC Plate
    ARTICLES & PAPERS (pdf)


    Cannabinoid Molecular Structures w/ Decarboxylation

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    Killing bacteria with cannabis

    By Yun Xie |August 26, 2008
    Pharmacists and chemists have found another use for the multipurpose cannabis as a source of antibacterial chemicals for multidrug resistant bacteria. Ironically, inhaling cannabis is known to damage the lung's ability to fend off invading pathogens, but the ingredients in cannabis, particularly the cannabinoids, have antiseptic properties. Although scattered research has been conducted since the 1950s, no comprehensive study existed that relates the structure of cannabinoids with antibacterial activity. Giovanni Appendino, Simon Gibbons, and coworkers attempted to remedy that problem by examining the activity of five common cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives.
    "..Five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA that plagued U.K. hospitals. CBD and CBG have the most potential for consumer use because they are nonpsychotropic.
    Besides identifying antibacterial capability, the researchers wanted to figure out why these cannabinoids are so good at killing bacteria. They obviously are very effective at specifically targeting some vital process in the bacteria. Unfortunately, even after extensive work at modifying the cannabinoids and comparing their activities, that targeting mechanism remains a mystery. The scientists were able to figure out that the position of the n-pentyl chain (orange) relative to the terpenoid moiety (blue) serves to control lipid affinity.
    These cannabinoids are promising enough to warrant rigorous clinical trials. They are applicable as topical antiseptics, biodegradable antibacterial compounds for cosmetics, and systematic antibacterial agents.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2008.

    Not ALL CBD Binds to Cannabinoid Receptors

    Org. Biomol. Chem., 2005, 3, 1116 - 1123
    Enantiomeric cannabidiol derivatives: synthesis and binding to cannabinoid receptors
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    Lumír O. Hanu, Susanna Tchilibon, Datta E. Ponde, Aviva Breuer, Ester Fride and Raphael Mechoulam
    (–)-Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major, non psychotropic constituent of cannabis. It has been shown to cause numerous physiological effects of therapeutic importance. We have reported that CBD derivatives in both enantiomeric series are of pharmaceutical interest. Here we describe the syntheses of the major CBD metabolites, (–)-7-hydroxy-CBD and (–)-CBD-7-oic acid and their dimethylheptyl (DMH) homologs, as well as of the corresponding compounds in the enantiomeric (+)-CBD series. The starting materials were the respective CBD enantiomers and their DMH homologs. The binding of these compounds to the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are compared. Surprisingly, contrary to the compounds in the (–) series, which do not bind to the receptors, most of the derivatives in the (+) series bind to the CB1 receptor in the low nanomole range. Some of these compounds also bind weakly to the CB2 receptor.
    **CS: Nature often produces molecules in multiple geometrical configurations. This study shows that cannabinoid receptors are selective about which type they like to hook-up with. This is extremely common with drugs and very important to pharmacology because each unique geometry can act like a whole other drug. In many cases one geometry will be a valuable and active drug in humans while the other form of the drug is mega-potent or poisonous.


    BOTANY - CANNABACEAE

    Taxonomy of Cannabis (marijuana) and Humulus (hops)- not

    CANNABIS TAXONOMY
    The cannabis scientist should not only consider the genus Cannabis, but the entire botanical family Cannabaceae (aka Cannabidacea), which also contains the genus Humulus that includes the vine called hops. Understanding the terpene profile and biosynthesis in Humulus may provide cannabis breeders with insight regarding flavor/aroma profile manipulation.
    Humulus (Hops, as in Hoppy India Pale Ale) is the only other genus besides Cannabis that is found in the family Cannabaceae; the two are genetically similar. Go to your local Homebrew Supplier and get an ounce of hops. A skunky variety such as Saaz will do. Compare the smell and physical similarities of the two Cannabaceae products. Smell familiar? Both have glandular trichomes that exude terpenoid-rich resin. Many of these resins not only add flavor to beer, but their orginal intent was to prevent spoilage via antimicrobial activity. Side-by-side the GC chromatograms from each plant would have many similarities (peaks). Cannabis and Hops each contain some of the same essential oils. For example, each has significant amounts of oils called myrcene and caryophyllene which contribute to their characteristic smells. They are both aromatic terpenes that contribute to the spicy smell in both flowers. Limonene, also present in Cannabaceae, is an oil with citrusy notes, and it happens to also be found in citrus fruits. Perhaps there lies utility in this genetic similarity for developing new flavor/aroma lineage. Attempts to cross-breed and graft the two species have failed. But today, cannabis scientists can influence the biosynthesis of certain compounds with advanced genetic technology. Understanding how the Humulus vine is influenced may provide insight into the nature of cannabis, and vice versa.

    Analytical Chemistry - The area of chemistry concerned with measuring the various aspects of chemicals in a sample. Determining the cannabinoid content of cannabis requires requires application of analytical chemistry. ​

    Protein Sequences:



    Know Your Alcohols:

    Ethanol (CH2OH) is the ONLY consumable alcohol. Poisonous methanol has the chemical formula CH3OH, smells sweet and is often superior to Ethanol for extractions due to it's higher polarity and lower viscosity. Drinking methanol (MeOH) leads to blindness and death. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is rubbing alcohol (CH3)2CHOH).
    There are endless kinds of alcohols. We can consider water a type of alcohol and water is known to organic chemist as the "Universal Solvent". Most kinds of salts dissolve in water. Cannabinoids are not salts and only barely soluble in cold water, but they are somewhat soluble in alcohol/water mixtures.



    COOKING RECIPIES
    Cannabis Kitchen & Recipes

    Recipe - Leary Biscuit
    1 - Ritz Cracker, 1-slice (3cm x 3cm) of fatty cheese (cheddar), 1-small cannabis bud (~0.5-1g), dab of butter (optional but aids process). Place kind on cracker, dab with butter, cover with cheese, microwave ~8s until oily cheese has completely draped the bud. Enjoy! Grinny, Social, Happy.
    Fun Duh-Mentals
    A few things to consider for every cannabis recipe...

    • Mass - The mass (weight) of cannabis called for by a recipe refers to the pre-dehydrated weight, generally 'as-received', 8-12% moisture by weight.

    • Dehydration - After chopping the marijuana, excess moisture should be removed from the herb by drying. Air-drying can be effective in arid regions. Otherwise, spread the cannabis on a baking sheet and oven-dry at 150F (65C) for not longer than 15 min. This heating step may contribute somewhat to the needed decarboxylation. The cannabis should be crispy and easily crushed to finer particles. Crush/powder before use. As it cools it will absorb moisture from the air as it attempts to establish equilibrium (internal water = external water)..

    • Decarboxylation - Loss of CO2: In nature THC forms in a series of steps; It is in the middle of a sequence of steps. Simplified, this chemistry happens in the trichome (resin 'gland') over time: A -> B -> C -> THC-ACID -> THC -> D -> E... Early in time there is much A & B with little or no D & E. At the end of the plant's life, there may be much D & E with little A & B. The point is that chemical content changes with time and there is always more than one chemical present. Cannabis harvest is ideally targeted to maximize THC, so there will always be plenty of THC-acid around that has not yet converted to THC. This conversion of THC-acid (tetrahydrocannabin-olic acid) to THC (tetrahydrocannabin-ol) is called decarboxylation, which is the loss of a CO2 molecule.

    • Decarboxylation occurs naturally but as with most chemical reactions, heat accelerates it. When ganja is smoked, the heat source helps decarboxylate any THC-acid to the desired psychoactive THC. (This poses interesting questions about overall efficiency of vaporizors and the critical importance of having the heat well distributed throughout the ganji.) When cooking marijuana it is necessary to SIMMER it in fat (or alcohol, but that's dangerous!). This fat serves as a solvent to extract plant oils, and it aids absorption of those oils in the gut.

    • Simmer - "Simma Down Now!" The pulverized cannabis needs to have the cannabinoids extracted, and to have the THC-Acid decarboxylated. The cannabis is stirred with melted butter or oil, enough to create a green slurry that is easily stirred. If using butter, it should first be melted and separated from any water. The slurry is heated to simmer (flame = low, elec. = medium) for about 15 minutes, never hotter. If the mixture starts to turn brown, it's too hot. "Simma down now!". The oil soluble chemicals will extract into the butter and some decarboxylation should occur. Be mindful that excessive heating destroys cannabinoids.

    • Filter or Not? The slurry can be used as-is but the food will definitely take on an earthy taste that will likely overpower other flavors, and leave tiny green bits in the teeth. But often the most chocolatey brownies go well with earth, and red wine. When in doubt, filter the hot slurry (caution!) through a wad of cheesecloth in a funnel. Doubled grain bags used in homebrewing work well. Coffee filters are too slow. Squeeze the wad to extract the juices. Ideally some 'clean' oil can be used to rinse the wad and get the remaining extractables (in nature, two rinses are best). Use your extract as recipes call for. Refrigerate any unused butter/oil. Compost the wad.
    METRIC CONVERSIONS: 1dl = 3.8 fl. oz. | | 28.3g = 1 oz. Cooking with Cannabis by Adam Gotleib

    Provided for Information Only
    * Cannabis Science does not advocate cooking as it can be dangerous.
    **Because of slow GI absorption, eating cannabis can lead to unpleasant experiences that generally cannot be attained by smoking. The desired effect with inhaled cannabis is self-titrated, thus further consumption stops when the desired effect is achieved. A measured dose is uneccesary when inhaled because the onset of effects is quick. But when eaten, dosage cannot be controlled in this manner and so measurement becomes critical, you are committed to the dose swallowed. The challenge is, measurement of cannabinoids by the Joe the Plumber is extremely difficult due to prohibition. If you eat a batch of cannabis that you have not yet tried, start slowly and use several sessions (days) to establish potency, and then work up to the desired effect based on your data. You'll then have the ability to better predict effect relative to # of brownies.
    ***The effects of orally ingested marijuana often last longer than with other routes of administration. Midnight brownies can lead to a groggy morning.
    Excerpts from the classic book 'The Art and Science of Cooking with Cannabis' by Adam Gottlieb. It features the main points of the book concerning the cooking of cannabis as well as some tasty cannabis recipes.
    courtesy of The Hippie at Helsinki University of Technology 31.8.1995 ​
    "The effects here will be less pronounced during the initial stages than those from smoking. But as the minutes progress, the "hash eater's" high may become far more overwhelming than anything that the smoker has ever experienced. This may be furthered by the fact that the eater does not get the same immediate signals [via self-titration] which tell the smoker that he has had enough..."​
    - The pharmacology and metabolism differ with a different route of administration. [cs]​
    "One may eat ten times too much and still be eating more before the first effects of the high have even arrived."
    Had too much? Anxiety, dizziness, sweating, disorganized thinking, ahllucinationsss. The bark is worse than the non-existent bite! Remember, you ate a little too much cannabis and it WILL go away soon; it is only natural cannabinoids and your body has a built-in system for dealing with them. Trust your body, it knows exactly what to do. No physical harm done.
    • THC is more efficiently assimilated if it has been dissolved in fats or alcohol. This is why the Leary Biscuit works with cheese but not without. -cs

    • The presence of little sugar in alcohol or in an oil-based confection may somewhat facilitate the assimilation of the THC. Too much sugar, however, can interfere with the digestion of the fats and their payload of THC.

    • Eat on an empty stomach. A little of the right kind of food will aid in the assimilation of cannabis resins; too much food will merely dilute its potency and waste much of it. - Too much food will also slow onset, sometimes leading to that that 2nd or 3rd brownie...oops! -cs

    • While too much heat or overcooking can destroy THC activity, normal cooking temperatures and times can increase potency by activating the THC via decarboxylation (below). -cs

    • Ginseng counterbalances the effects of cannabis and helps the consumer maintain clarity under its influence. Ginseng is an excellent tonic for the nerves, blood circulation and glands. It also helps the body to heal itself more swiftly.
    • Light-to-Moderate caffeine consumption can also help here in overcoming Amotivational Syndrome, which is your CHOICE, not a side effect! (Sitting on your ass is YOUR choice, and is easily overcome if desired. Avoid feeding the stereotype.)
    Anyone have experience here?
    GHEE
    Ghee is clarified butter often used in Indian recipes. Properly prepared ghee can be kept in room temperature or in a moderately cool place for many months without spoiling.
    Preparation:
    Method I: Heat 0.5 kg or more of fresh butter in a saucepan at a medium-low temperature (hot enough to boil the butter). A froth will form on the surface. Skim the froth with a spoon and discard it. Continue until no more froth appears. Be careful to remove all the froth. The remaining butterfat is ghee. Store in a refrigerator.
    Method II: Use of a wok is recommended, but any pot will do. Be sure the vessel you're using is absolutely clean.
    Cleaning of the wok: place a handful of salt and a little salad oil and scour with the aid of a cloth or paper towels. Repeat with fresh salt and oil until no more oxides appear on the towel. Wipe away the remaining salt. Never use water to clean a wok or cast iron pan!
    Melt 0.5-1 kg of butter in a wok at medium-low temperature. Allow the molten butter to simmer for a while. White particles will float to the top. Stir frequently to insure that nothing sticks to the bottom.
    Eventually the butter will start to bubble over. Remove the wok from the stove and let it stand for about five minutes during which the white particles will sink to the bottom. When they have settled pour the ghee into a jar.
    For purer ghee it may be filtered through several layers of cheesecloth while hot. This will lessen the butterscotch flavor. The color of the ghee should be slightly darker than gold. If it gets any darker than this your wok is too hot.
    If unsalted butter is used the residue can be eaten for example with honey. If salted butter is used the residue is worthless.
    CANNABUTTER
    Melt 0.5 kg (1.1 lbs) of butter or ghee in a saucepan. Add several ounces (1 oz = 28.35 g) of finely sifted marijuana. Simmer and stir for a few minutes until the butter takes on the greenish color of the grass.
    Pour the butter through a fine stainer. Press the mash firmly to squeeze out as much butter as possible. A little heat may be applied beneath the mash to help the butter flow better.
    Do not discard the leafy material. Simmer it in (hot) milk or vodka and sweeten with honey to make a tasty and effective beverage.
    For extra potency the process may be repeated by heating more marijuana in the same butter. Otherwise do as above.
    A simpler and more potent cannabutter can be done by using hashish or hash oil instead of marijuana. Heat and stir until all the hash or oil dissolves in the butter. As much of hash or oil may be used as desired as it will dissolve very easily.
    CANNABUTTER, method II
    Fill the boiling pot 1/3 the way with crushed and crumbled marijuana tops. Fill the pot 3/4 the way with a mixture of 1 part butter and 4 parts of water. Boil for 30 minutes stirring frequently.**Note that the author ignored overall volume. Don't FILL the pot or boiling leads to a mess!
    Remove as much debris from the bottom as possible. Allow the liquids to cool to room temperature, then refrigerate. The butter will harden on the top and can be removed. Discard the water.
    If a stronger product is desired the process can be repeated with fresh water and grass.
    CANNABIS COOKING BRANDY
    Cannabis cooking brandy is not meant for pleasurable drinking. It may be used in any recipe that calls for rum or brandy, such as mince pie, rum babas, rum- or brandy-soaked pound cakes and egg nogs.
    Place whatever cannabis materials you have in a mason jar. Cover with rum, brandy or vodka. Allow to soak for a week. After soaking place the jar in a hot bath. Loosen the top to allow the escape of expanding fumes. Heat for 30 to 45 minutes. Strain while hot and pour over new materials. Repeat the soaking and heating as above up to four times. Store in a bottle.
    If you have scraps of hashish, pulverize and add them after the final straining while the liquid is still hot. Shake before use.
    HOT BUTTERED BHANG (2 servings)

    • 55 g butter or ghee
    • 10-15 g good marijuana tops or leaves
    • 2.5 dl vodka
    • powdered cardamom (optional)
    • honey (optional)
    • whipped cream (optional)
    Melt the butter in a saucepan. Crumble in the grass and stir it in. Continue stirring over medium heat for one minute. While it is hot and sizzling, add the vodka. Be cautious that the hot butter does not make the mixture spatter. It is best to pour in the vodka swiftly.
    Continue to boil for 30 seconds or more stirring all the while. The cardamom may be added during the boiling.
    The longer you boil the less alcohol the drink will have. After boiling for desired time strain the liquids. Press the mash with a spoon to remove all the liquids.
    The effects may be felt in less than 15 minutes.
    INSTANT HASH BANG for 2

    • 0.5 to 1 gram of hash
    • 1.3 cm slice of butter
    • milk (cold)


    1. Add the butter to 0.5 l of boiling water.
    2. Crumble in the hash and let slowly boil for a minute or more.
    3. Fill two 2.5 dl parfait glasses (or any vessels that won't crack from the heat) one third the way with milk.
    4. Strain the hash concoction through a fine-mesh strainer. Save the residue.
    5. Add honey or other sweetener.
    6. Flavor with cinnamon, nutmeg, vanilla extract, almond extract or any item of this sort.
    MAJOON

    • 7 g cleaned marijuana tops
    • 2.5 dl chopped dates
    • 1.25 dl raisins or currants
    • 1.25 dl ground walnuts
    • 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
    • 1 teaspoon anise seed
    • 1 teaspoon ginger
    • 1.25 dl honey
    • 1.25 dl water (more if needed)
    • 2 tablespoons melted butter or ghee
    Toast the marijuana on a dry skillet over low heat until golden brown. Mix all the ingredients except the butter and cook until the ingredients have softened enough to be blended together.
    While hot add the butter and stir for 5 minutes. Seal in a jar and store refrigerated. Majoon may be spread on crackers, used as a pastry filling or eaten by the fingerful.
    HAMENTASHEN

    • 5 dl prune or apple butter
    • 1.25 dl ground almonds
    • 1 tablespoon lemon juice
    • 0.5 to 1 tablespoons powdered cinnamon
    • 7 g powdered hashish
    Thoroughly blend the ingredients. Seal in a jar and refrigerate. Usage: the same way as majoon.
    MARRAKESH WHITE COOKIES

    • 2.5 dl warm cannabutter
    • 1.25 dl sugar or honey
    • 1 egg
    • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract or for variation almond, orange or lemon may be used
    • 7.5 dl flour
    • 1 teaspoon baking powder
    • almonds

    1. Blend together cannabutter and honey.
    2. Beat in the egg.
    3. Stir in the vanilla extract (or any other flavoring you may be using).
    4. Sift together the flour and baking powder.
    5. Combine the ingredients to make a dough.
    6. Chill the dough for an hour until firm.
    7. Roll the dough to about 0.5 cm thickness.
    8. Cut the dough into 2.5 to 5.0 cm circles. Use a cookie cutter or a small drinking glass.
    9. Place the cookies on a baking tray or cookie sheet and press an almond into the center of each cookie.
    10. Bake at 190 C for 6 - 8 minutes.
    THC PBC's
    (TetraHydroCannabinated Peanut Butter Cookies)

    • 5 dl flour
    • 3.75 dl peanut butter (or any other nut butter)
    • 2 to 3 eggs
    • 2 dl honey
    • 2.5 dl butter (room temperature)
    • 1 teaspoon baking soda
    • 0.5 teaspoons salt
    • 60 g finely sifted marijuana (hashish or hash oil may also be used)

    1. Combine and blend the ingredients thoroughly.
    2. Place cookie-size droppings of the batter on a baking tin and press lightly on each cookie with a back of the fork to flatten them.
    3. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes at 190 C. Don't overcook.
    For extra potency, cannabutter may be used in place of the butter.
    Candy Buds (aka Honey Buds)

    • medium sized buds (5 to 10 cm)
    • a few tablespoons of ghee or cannabutter
    • honey

    1. Remove the seeds (if any).
    2. Tie a loop of rope around the stem of each bud. Loops should be at least 5 cm apart so they wont stick together.
    3. In a small saucepan over low heat, melt the ghee or cannabutter.
    4. Tilt the saucepan so that the butter collects in one corner and briefly (1-2 s) dip in each bud. Swish around while dipping so the butter gets into the in-between places.
    5. Suspend the string for about 15 minutes to allow excess butter to drip from the buds.
    6. Dip the buds in honey. Move them up and down in the honey in order to coat them thoroughly.
    7. Suspend and allow to drip for a week. Beware of flies and ants.
    8. The honey will have hardened somewhat. Dip in again, suspend and wait for it to harden. After about a week the buds may be eaten or allowed to hang longer.
    9. If the buds are to be kept for a long time they should be allowed to harden for several weeks after the last honey dip and then be wrapped in foil or plastic wrap.
    Chew well for best results.
    ACAPULCO GREEN

    • 1.25 dl olive oil
    • 1.25 dl powdered marijuana
    • 2 teaspoons chili powder
    • 3 ripe avocados
    • 1.25 dl chopped onions
    • a little lemon juice
    Mix the oil and the grass and heat for several minutes. Mix all ingredients until avocados are mashed and all the materials evenly blended.
    Serve as a dip with corn chips.
    3 tablespoons of wine vinegar may be used in place of the oil. Do not heat, but let the grass and chili soak in the vinegar for one hour.
    HASH OIL HONEY

    • 1 tablespoons ghee (or butter or vegetable oil) for every gram of hash oil to be combined
    • 1.25 dl honey for every gram of hash oil
    Heat the ghee at a low temperature and mix in the hash oil. Stir in the honey over heat until thoroughly blended. Pour into a jar while still hot. Allow to cool and cap.
    One teaspoon of this honey is usually sufficient for a high.
    HASH OIL CANDY BARS


    • 1.25 dl chopped dates
    • 1.25 dl raisins
    • 1.25 dl figs
    • 1.25 dl ground almonds
    • 1 teaspoon ground aniseed
    • 1 teaspoon nutmeg
    • 1 teaspoon ginger
    • 4 tablespoons hot hash oil/butter blend (for proportions and preparation see hash oil honey above)


    1. Mix and heat slightly all the ingredients except the butter.
    2. Combine the mixture with the hot butter.
    3. Cool the mixture. Knead, roll and cut into individual candy bars.
    4. Wrap in waxed paper, foil or plastic.
    Optional preparation:
    Combine all the ingredients except the butter with 2.5 dl water, heat and mix in the butter.
    Heat at a low temperature stirring constantly to prevent scorching. When this mixture has thickened to workable consistency, it is spread on a well-greased baking tin and placed in an oven at 107 C for 30 minutes or until hard enough to cut into individual squares. You may optionally add 1 gram of ginseng to each bar.
    EASY CANDY BALLS


    • 230 g nut butter

    • 28 g or more of finely sifted marijuana
    OR

    • 14 to 28 g of pulverized or finely shifted hashish
    OR

    • 5 to 15 g of hash oil

    • a few tablespoons of honey in accordance to your taste
    small amounts of some of these:

    • dried currants
    • shredded coconut
    • ground orange
    • lemon peel
    • powdered cloves
    • nutmeg
    Combine the nut butter and cannabis. Mix in the honey and whatever else you desire. Knead until thoroughly blended. Roll into individual balls about the size of a large marble. Wrap individually in waxed paper, foil or transparent wrap. Keep under refrigeration.
    One or two candy balls should be a ball.
    CANNABIS MILKSHAKE & ICE CREAM

    • 230 g or more of finely pulverized marijuana leaves and flowers (no seeds or stems)
    • 2.5 dl milk
    • 2.5 dl cream
    • 1 teaspoon lecithin granules
    • several tablespoons of honey
    • 0.5 teaspoon vanilla extract
    Milkshake:
    Combine the marijuana, milk and cream. Add the lecithin granules and mix in a blender for 1 to 2 minutes. Pour into a saucepan and heat gently for 10 minutes in a double boiler.
    Be careful not to overcook as this will make curds separate from the milk.
    Stir in the honey. Pour back to the blender jar, add the vanilla extract, cover the top and refrigerate for several hours until chilled.
    When you wish to drink it, put it on the electric blender for 30 seconds and serve in a glass with a straw.

    Ice cream: Do as above. Blend in a raw egg and whip thoroughly in a blender until frothy. Pour into any suitable vessel with a lid. Close the lid (waxed paper or plastic wrap will do). Freeze immediately.
    For a psychedelic sundae cover with cannabis chocolate icing (below).

    Using hash or hash oil in place of marijuana in this recipe:
    Dissolve hash or hash oil in a small amount of butter or ghee. Otherwise as above.
    CANNABIS CHOCOLATE ICING

    • 115 g cannabis tar
    • 1 teaspoon or more of vanilla extract
    • 115 g honey
    • 1 teaspoon orange extract (optional)
    Melt the tar in a double boiler. Add honey stirring all the while. Thoroughly blend all the ingredients.
    HOT COCOA type beverage for 2

    • 0.5 l whole milk (or half milk-half cream)
    • 1 to 2 teaspoons cannabis tar
    • 2 to 4 teaspoons honey
    • 1 teaspoon vanilla
    • a pinch of salt (optional)
    Heat milk in a double boiler. When hot, stir in the tar, honey and vanilla. If milk has been used 1 to 2 teaspoons of butter may be added to aid the assimilation.
    CURRIED HASH


    • 1 part curry
    • 3 to 4 parts powdered hashish
    Half fill a jar with the ingredients and shake vigorously to blend them homogeneously.
    A teaspoon of the mixture may be sprinkled upon any suitable small dish. Hot buttered rice and vegetables are ideal because of the fat content. Do not use with heavy meals as this will produce a very poor effect.
    ONION SOUP RUDERALIS


    • 4 to 6 onions
    • oil or butter
    • 14 to 28 g finely sifted marijuana
    • 4 tablespoons flour
    • 1 l heated water
    • seasonings
    • wine brandy or cannabis cooking brandy
    Thinly slice the onions and saute in a generous portion of oil or butter. When the onions are partially cooked, but have not yet begun to brown stir in the marijuana. Saute until the onions are brown. Remove pan from heat. Stir in the flour. Cover the pan and let it sit on low heat for five minutes or so. Stir every few minutes. Add the onions to the heated water. Thoroughly rinse the pan with this water in order not to lose any of the precious fats. Add any seasoning.
    Simmer for thirty minutes. Add a little wine, brandy or cannabis cooking brandy. Serve with garnish of sour cream, Parmesan cheese, paprika and dill weed.
    Stir well before serving. See to it that each guest receives similar portions of top and bottom fluids. The oil containing the THC tends to rise to the surface.
    CREME DE GRAS

    • 57 g marijuana (all parts may be used)
    • vodka or a similar mixture of pure grain alcohol and distilled or spring water
    • honey
    Place the marijuana in a one liter mason jar. Completely cover the marijuana with heated vodka. Cap the jar and keep it in a moderately warm place for at least 5 days. Check occasionally to see that all of the grass remains submerged.
    Strain and save the liquids in a bottle. Resoak the mash in fresh vodka for another five days or so. Strain the liquids and combine them with the first strainings.
    Cover the mash with distilled or spring water and let soak for another five days but no longer than that.
    Heat the jar in boiling water for 45 minutes. Remember to loosen the cap first.
    Strain the liquids while hot and add them to the other liquids. Filter the combined liquids through a conical paper coffee filter. Because of the large amount of fine debris suspended in these liquids, it will be necessary several times to replace clogged filter papers with fresh ones.
    If any murkiness remains in the filtered liquors, bottle them and let them stand undisturbed for about a week while the sediment settles and the liquid above it becomes clear. Siphon the clear liquids off the sediment.
    Put the liquors in a clean mason jar with a slightly loosened cap and heat in a pan of boiling water for about 15 minutes or until the liquors warm to about 80 Celsius.
    Stir in honey until the desired sweetness is attained. Pour the liquids through a funnel into a clean bottle; Carefully, so as not to
    RETSINA SATIVA

    • a small amount of heated pure grain alcohol, vodka or brandy
    • highly concentrated hash oil
    Use two or more grams of hash oil in 30 g alcohol. Add immediately, while still hot, to 0.8 l bottle of white wine at room temperature. Shake well to spread the resin evenly through the wine.
    Hashish may be used if hash oil is not available. Break up four or more grams of hashish and dissolve in 110 g or more of hot alcohol. Hashish does not dissolve as easily as hash oil, so some extra stirring and repeated heating may be required.
    One or two glasses of retsina sativa should do the trick.
    CANNABEER
    Do a concentrated extraction of the cannabinated hops fruits into hot vodka or ethanol. This can be added to the beer after it is brewed (or purchased). If cannabinated hops are not available, a marijuana/alcohol extraction can be combined directly with a bottle of commercial beer. Experiment with different amounts.
    CANNABIS AND COFFEE

    Turkish Eye Opener


    • a pot of good coffee
    • 1 teaspoon of finely-powdered straight Arabian mocha/cup
    • a pinch of powdered cardamom seed
    • 0.5 g of pulverized hashish/cup
    • 1 teaspoon honey/cup
    Place the mocha, cardamom and hashish in a Turkish coffee pot. Pour on the coffee. Heat the Turkish pot over a low flame until it threatens to bubble over. Remove it from the heat immediately.
    Serve in demitasse or espresso cups with a small spoon. Dissolve in the honey. The coffee is sipped from the top and the powdered mocha, honey and whatever is eaten like a candy from the bottom with a spoon.
    Leprechaun's Delight (Irish style coffee)
    To a cup of coffee add one shot of Creme de Gras and top with whipped cream. If you feel up to it, cannabis cooking brandy may be used instead of Creme de Gras.
    Jack Tar Coffee

    • 1 g cannabis tar
    • heavy cream
    • alcohol (optional)
    • honey (optional)
    Dissolve the cannabis tar in a cup of very hot coffee. It won't really dissolve unless you add some alcohol, but it will be sort of suspended in the coffee.
    Add some heavy cream right away. Don't add too much honey, as too much sugar will slow down the digestion of the fat (containing the good stuff).
    BUTTERBALL COFFEE
    Stir into a cup of coffee one or more teaspoons of strongly concentrated cannabutter.
    HASH OIL & COFFEE

    Several drops of hash oil can be dissolved in a hot cup of coffee with cream added.
    TEAS TO EASE THE HASH-PARCHED THROAT​

    MOROCCAN TEA

    • 2 parts of black tea
    • 3 parts peppermint leaves
    • 1 part hibiscus flowers (or rose hips)
    The mint has a cooling and soothing effect upon the throat. The black tea and hibiscus together act as a mild and pleasant astringent. The black tea also contains 2% caffeine, which helps to counter the effects of overindulgence.
    This tea should be steeped, but not boiled. Let steep for 2 to 3 minutes before serving. Sweeten with honey, not white sugar.
    If you use rose hips, they should be crumbled and added to the boiling water. This is afterwards poured over the black tea and mint leaf mixture.
    Other Teas You Can Invent
    The ideal hash-smoker's tea consists of a soothing aromatic, a demulcent, a healing agent, and a mild astringent. A mild expectorant may also be included, as well as any palatable herb which serves as an antispasmodic.
    Among the demulcent herbs are: peppermint, spearmint, thyme, sage, wintergreen, cardamom seeds, cloves, cinnamon, allspice, eucalyptus leaves, angelica seed, hyssop, ginger root, coriander seeds and catnip.
    Among the mild astringent herbs are: thyme, sage, rosemary, comfrey root and leaves, ginseng and elecampane.
    Among the expectorant herbs are: horehound, mullein flowers, goldenrod leaves, lungworth and forget-me-not leaves.



    A BIG THANKS TO THIS SITE FOR THE INFO
    http://www.cannabis-science.com/cannabis_chemistry.html


    thanks for reading ppl i found it and thought someone else may be able to appreciate it hopefully:)

    peace out
    jester88

    :dunce:


     
    Hobbes, orzz, Phenom420 and 2 others like this.
  2.  
    kayabear

    kayabear Active Member

    interesting shit
     
    Jester88 likes this.
  3.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    i found it pretty insightful glad this has been appreciated :)

    this is for you :joint:. youll need it quit a read there it seems
     
  4.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    FROM WHAT I GATHER

    The thc, cbn cbd etc. percentages provided on a seedbanks web site are in no way to be used as a way to measure potency or effect and nor are they meant to be.. Tho i suppose it can to an extent... (thats why most places have good writeups tho i gather). They are merely there so you can see how much of each active ingredient is found in the plant through studies, remembering that environmental aspects and things like that play a role in determining PURITY too (there results normally come from a plant thats been in idealcercumstances more than likely).. what these are more to the point a measurement of how much pure phsycoactive ingredient there is in the plant not how strong potent or the effects it will provide.. as i said environment, care and things like that play a role too. these are just tests done in a lab that you could hope to achieve if you grow them right..


    Red Dragon



    [​IMG]

    The parentage of this line is exotic – a West Himalayan Kush crossed with a true breeding Brazilian sativa. (Utopia Haze) “These buds have a distinct and immediate, exotic sativa high, but is followed minutes later by a wonderful undertow of a solid Kush stone that lasts and lasts. Finished buds have a taste and smell of sweet guava fruit.
    Red Dragon grows medium short, (80cm) and produces heavy colas of unique red/green buds.
    Flowering time is short ( max – 9 weeks) giving big yield of highly prized product, that finishes by mid to end September.
    Type: Indica / Sativa
    Genetics: Brazilian. Afghani
    Yield: Optimum indoor. 500 gr/m2
    Indoor Height: 55 – 65 cm
    Indoor flowering time: 65 to 75 days
    Outdoor harvest time: Mid/End September
    THC: 23%
    CBD: 1.2%

    White Widow

    [​IMG]

    £4.62 per seed
    €5.19 / CAD$8.23
    This Widow has a moderate THC content and yield, but absolute connoisseur quality. It offers a strong Indica kick and an ever-present Sativa head-high, combined with a clean, smooth smoking flavour.
    Awards: 1st prize Bio HTCC 1995.
    Genetics: Brazilian and South Indian.
    Effect: A relaxing indica feeling that evolves in a bursting sativa high. Very complex and enjoyable.
    Flowering indoor: 8-9 weeks with a yield of 400 to 600 gr/ sqm.
    Flowering outdoor: Ready in early October above the equator; in May in the Southern hemisphere.
    THC: 12%
    CBD: 1.4%
    CBN: 0.6%

    Durban Poision


    [​IMG]

    Durban Poison is an F1 crossing of a Sativa strain from a secret garden located just outside Durban, South Africa and a potent, early Dutch skunk. This strain grows tall with huge leaves. Long, tight buds have a sweet earthy flavor that has a hint of anise. Famous for its trippy high!
    Plant type: Best suitable for outdoor growing.

    Plant height: Tall, mostly Sativa.
    Stoned or high: Sativa high, cerebral buzz.
    THC level: Moderate 5-10%
    Flowering Weeks: 8/9 weeks.
    Yield: 450 grams (Sea of Green on one m2).
    Harvest Month: 9.
    Grow difficulty: Easy (good for beginners).


    info courtesy of pick and mix seedbank ;)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    righteo we all know that durban poison whilst generally having a pretty low thc percentage rating can knock your socks off better than a shitty grown white widow ever could.. again grow environment most likely..

    all there saying that through tests they have found that in good conditions 10% of the plants active ingredient was thc.

    REMEMBERING
    it doesnt matter if they done the tests with 1 resin gland or 1000000, 2gs of pure extract/resin or .00002
    they are only after percentage of psychoactive ingredient such as thc and cbd present in the tests.

    not how potent it is or its effects, these are another story.. again the environment and genetics plays a big part in this. you may not get the same results as the labs but you should be close if you do things right.

    theres more to a stoned than meets the eyes ppl lol >< :eyesmoke:
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    as you can see this info along with the right ups is helpful to grower if you understand wat it means and have a good write up.
    i hope i explained it well enough i was trying to simplify it i hope i didnt lose too much in translation lol...

    if im wrong please correct me..... ill also get around to writing it out better sometime hopefully. i fear i did fuck up but hey ya get that i tried.
    i did have a better copy but i got logged out and shit fucked up. thats y yas get this shitty version

    sorry about that

    peace out
    j88
    :dunce:
     
  5.  
    Mortloch

    Mortloch Well-Known Member

    Going to have to book mark this, a lot to read and I want to take it all in
     
    Jester88 likes this.
  6.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    no probs :)

    heres a joint to smoke whilst ya read it lol :joint:
     
    mr west likes this.
  7.  
    Syriuslydelyrius

    Syriuslydelyrius Well-Known Member

    Excellent.... I will be trying a few of those recipies for sure!
     
    mr west and Jester88 like this.
  8.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    me n the missus made some butter and then some space cake the other day it was pretty good.. get ya smashed lol.

    btters simple i used to boil it for ages though now only half an hour with some water and butter.. then freeze it to get the butter to go hard.. about 1 n a half hours to 2 hours in the freezer does it..

    there ya go simple butter :)

    anyhoo glad ya like it.. and as usual heres a rep for you guys for being the first to give appreciation

    peace out
    j88
     
  9.  
    Scranny420

    Scranny420 Well-Known Member

    A must read indeed!
     
    Jester88 likes this.
  10.  
    fali13

    fali13 Member

    when whenever im not as stoned as i am right now, i will give that a proper look, thanks man. +rep
     
    Jester88 likes this.
  11.  
    jizzlobber

    jizzlobber Member

    thanks for the confusion.
     
  12.  
    orzz

    orzz Well-Known Member

    Thanks for the great thread Jester!
     
    Jester88 likes this.
  13.  
    Musical Suicide

    Musical Suicide New Member

    So rad! Thanks for the post!
     
    Jester88 likes this.
  14.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    confusion???

    whats up maybe i can clarify
    hopefully lol :eyesmoke:
     
  15.  
    Scranny420

    Scranny420 Well-Known Member

    This thread has made me interested in reading what is available at www.cannabis-science.com

    I hope I'm not the only one.
     
    Jester88 likes this.
  16.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    thanks for that ill definately check it out some time :)

    read one page but theres few links id like to have a look at
    id rep ya but i am unable to

    sorry :roll:
     
  17.  
    johndoecangrow

    johndoecangrow Active Member

    nice info I thank you for your time
     
  18.  
    Jester88

    Jester88 Well-Known Member

    no problems glad it was appreciated i seen marijuana man ask the question once and thought fuck it ill try answer the question hehe.
     
  19.  
    Jerry Garcia

    Jerry Garcia Well-Known Member

    I found this passage from the link you posted at the end to be particularly interesting...no wonder I like IPA's so much!

    Humulus
    (Hops, as in Hoppy India Pale Ale) is the only other genus besides Cannabis that is found in the family Cannabaceae; the two are genetically similar. Go to your local Homebrew Supplier and get an ounce of hops. A skunky variety such as Saaz will do. Compare the smell and physical similarities of the two Cannabaceae products. Smell familiar? Both have glandular trichomes that exude terpenoid-rich resin. Many of these resins not only add flavor to beer, but their orginal intent was to prevent spoilage via antimicrobial activity. Side-by-side the GC chromatograms from each plant would have many similarities (peaks). Cannabis and Hops each contain some of the same essential oils. For example, each has significant amounts of oils called myrcene and caryophyllene which contribute to their characteristic smells. They are both aromatic terpenes that contribute to the spicy smell in both flowers. Limonene, also present in Cannabaceae, is an oil with citrusy notes, and it happens to also be found in citrus fruits. Perhaps there lies utility in this genetic similarity for developing new flavor/aroma lineage. Attempts to cross-breed and graft the two species have failed. But today, cannabis scientists can influence the biosynthesis of certain compounds with advanced genetic technology. Understanding how the Humulus vine is influenced may provide insight into the nature of cannabis, and vice versa.
     
  20.  
    Hobbes

    Hobbes Well-Known Member

    .

    Thanks Jester.

    .

    bongsmilie
     

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