Firstly we'd like to say it's great to be back as a company to RIU with the grassroots growers who made us famous. It's been 9 years since we contributed to this forum, and for those of you who aren't familiar with our brand, let me give you a brief background of Penetrator LED Grow Lights. Penetrator LED Grow Lights were released in July 2009 based on a mathematical theory developed by our founder "LEDGirl". Back then people called her crazy for claiming she could calculate how any competitor would fare against her products; and yet one independent side-by-side after another in the winning circle proved her correct. To this day Penetrator Grow Lights are undefeated in independent side-by-side grow competitions after a decade on the market. Our 336X grow light set the World Record for highest single autoflower yield not once, but twice by grower Seymour Buds. Our dominance in the LED industry didn't happen by chance, it happened because our founder cracked the spectral equation that no one else has been able to figure out since. So in keeping with our open-source development, let me share with you one of the reasons Penetrator LED Grow Lights deliver an average of 2-4X the yield per watt of competing LEDs and HID. (Part 1): The Mathematical Theory Behind Penetrator LED Grow Light Spectrum First what is light? It's a wave of electromagnetic energy that travels at different frequencies or "wavelengths". The length of each wave (measured in nanometers "nm") determines the color of light and also how much energy it is able to deliver per second. Each light wave is equal to one photon of energy. The shorter the wave, the more photons are delivered per second. The frequency of a wave is measured in Hertz (Hz), with 1Hz being equal to one wave per second. Light is the fastest moving wave in the Universe traveling at almost 3 million meters per second (186,000 miles/sec). Because of this light is typically measured in Terahertz (THz) or 1 trillion Hertz. We can express the photon energy carried by light wavelengths in electron volts (eV). In physics the eV is the amount of energy gained by an electron when the electric potential increases by 1 volt (V). The shorter the wave, the more energy in eV (or photons) it contains per second. In plants, chlorophyll pigments contain a porphyrin ring (a stable, ring-shaped molecule around which electrons are free to migrate). Because electrons move freely, the ring has the potential to gain or lose electrons readily. This is the method by which chlorophyll captures the energy (eV) from any light source. Once these electrons are captured by chlorophyll, they are passed along to alternate molecules that use them to manufacture sugars. These sugars then fuel the growth of the plant. Just because a wavelength has eV energy, does not mean plants are able to absorb or convert it. Chlorophyll acts like a light filter, absorbing some colors and reflecting others. For energy to be captured and used for growth, it must be within the absorption range of Chlorophyll A, B or Carotenoids. Wavelengths with the highest absorption by Chlorophyll/Carotenoids are referred to as absorption peaks. These peaks vary from one plant species to the next; however for Cannabis they are predominantly found at 439 & 667nm for Chlorophyll A, 469nm and 642nm for Chlorophyll B. But just because Chlorophyll/Carotenoids are able to absorb this light, does not mean it is converted into sugars the same from one color to the next. The Photochemical Efficiency of chlorophyll determines how much absorbed light can be converted into processing sugars. By this point a lot of information has been thrown at you, so now it's time to summarize how all of this information works together in our part 1 of our theoretical equation that created the #1 performing grow light in the world. Our Theoretical Equation for Determining the Electrical Efficiency of Wavelengths Light moves in waves and each wavelength carries a specific electrical energy expressed in electron Volts "eV" (an expression of photons per second). Chlorophyll captures electrons from light via the porphyrin ring and transfers these electrons to other molecules to make sugars for plant growth. How much light (eV) Chlorophyll can absorb is based heavily on the wavelength of light and is known as absorptive efficiency. How much captured light energy is converted to sugar is based heavily on the wavelength of light and is known as photochemical efficiency. So to calculate how much potential energy any wavelength has, you multiply the eV by the absorptive efficiency of chlorophyll/carotenoids, then by the overall photochemical efficiency. This gives you the net eV available for photosynthesis. Dividing the net eV from the total available eV gives you the net efficiency of each wavelength. Keep in mind the photosynthetic peaks and photochemical efficiency vary from one plant to the next, so this graph is simply a representation based on a single type of plant. Penetrator LED Grow Lights use 6 wavelengths of light found at 440, 470, 525, 640, 660 & 740nm. These are among the most efficient wavelengths when we look at the conversion of electrical energy (light) to growing energy (sugars). For example 39.6% of the watts used to create 660nm are converted into energy by your plants, compared to only 3% for 620nm. Thus Penetrator grow lights waste far less energy compared to those that use 9, 11, 13 or 15-wavelengths, or those who rely heavily on a white spectrum.