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Solvents for making hash oil

Discussion in 'Concentrates and Extracts' started by MrEDuck, Aug 14, 2012.

  1.  
    MrEDuck

    MrEDuck Well-Known Member

    I wrote this up for a friend and figured I would post it here as well.

    Pretty much any partially polar or nonpolar solvent can be used to extract hash oil, some are better than others.
    So here goes:
    Butane
    Pros: It makes wonderful oil and it's very easy to remove every last trace of it, especially if you have a way to purge it with a vacuum (which I recommend for any solvent extract). Ready to smoke the fastest of any method listed here.
    Cons: It's the most flammable thing on this list, considering ether is also on this list that's saying A LOT! Because of that it needs the most ventilation. As in outside and away from people unless you happen to have a fume hood in your house. Some of us don't have that kind of privacy. It also requires more specialized equipment, specifically a stainless steel or glass tube that you can inject butane into, which also limits the batch size. Do not use a PVC or other plastic for the tube. You can pull plasticizers out of in and into your oil!
    Ether
    Pros: Makes wonderful oil, also evaporates quickly (it boils at body temp!). Is just a generally extremely useful solvent.
    Cons: needs to be stabilized or distilled fresh or it forms explosive peroxides with the oxygen in the air in the bottle. Requires glass or steel. It loves to catch fire. It will autoignite (no spark needed) at 160C. Hope your oven isn't on. It's almost as flammable as butane, and the only liquid on this list that gets a flammability rating of 4 on the safety diamond. Skip it if you don't have extensive lab experience.
    Isopropanol
    Pros: The most readily available and cheapest on this list. If a very fast wash is done it makes excellent oil, but ultimately the yield is limited by the fact that it starts pulling out chlorophyll and sugars if it stays in contact with the weed for any real period of time.
    Cons: Pulls out things besides the resin, is pretty flammable despite the small amount of water (don't even bother with the 70%, it must be 91%+) due to it being a branched hydrocarbon and having an oxygen atom. Low yield because you can really only do a quick rinse or you get poor taste if any chlorophyll or sugars gets into the oil from soaking too long.
    Ethanol
    Pros: Less flammable than IPA. YOU CAN DRINK IT! Really I wouldn't do this to make oil but green dragon is awesome. I decarb bud before extracting to make a more potent product.
    Cons: if you are making oil it's a waste of ethanol which could cause ancestral haunting if you're Irish like me :) Probably other hard drinking groups like Russian or Polish as well.
    Acetone
    Pros: I can't really think of any
    Cons: Doesn't fully evaporate!! Doesn't fully evaporate!! Also pulls out chlorophyll and sugars like IPA. Also extremely flammable. Skip it!
    Pentane
    Pros: Pulls great oil of equivalent quality to butane. Evaporates very fast (it also boils at body temp, hold the flask in your hands when evaporating and watch it start to boil!). Can be used for a large batch if you have a way to minimize evaporation.
    Cons: needs really good storage or you risk opening an empty bottle. Requires a glass or steel vessel to extract and evaporate in.
    Hexanes
    refers to n-hexane, isohexanes, or a mixture of isomers
    Pros: basically the same as the other hydrocarbons as far as quality (I can't tell the difference), a little better for bulk extractions as it evaporates slower than pentane, I still wouldn't leave it that long. An hour at most.
    Cons: needs to be done in glass or steel (like everything but the alcohols)
    n-Heptane
    Pros: that great alkane oil! Can sit for a few hours to really soak everything out of the weed. I'd give it a period stir to check on it and maximize extraction. Because n-heptane is produced by a species of pine tree it is available in very high purity for pretty cheap.
    Cons: Glass or steel required, flammable. Really about as minimal as you can get for an organic solvent.
    Naphtha
    Pros: Rick Simpson seems to like it. Gives an ok extract.
    Cons: Steel/Glass required (I wouldn't suggest a rice cooker, most have plastic parts that will come in contact with the solvent and probably end up in your oil), is a mix of light alkanes from crude oil so it's inconsistent batch to batch. Sometimes has traces of heavy material from production (bad distillation) or just added in because it drives production costs down and still retains the correct properties required to be a naphtha cut.


    Solvents to Avoid Like Plagues

    Benzene. Great solvent, except for that little problem with being a terrible carcinogen. Chemists used to wash their hands with it. Looking at our history I'm honestly shocked anyone survived their PhD in organic. No safety gloves, shitty or no fume hoods. Smoking in the fucking lab (this is how the sweetening properties of the first artifical sweetener were discovered, someone noticed the cigarette they were smoking tasted sweeter!)
    Anything with the word fluoro, chloro, bromo, iodo, or halo in the name. These are halogenated organics and as a general rule are toxic. Their are exceptions but the light solvents aren't among them, and the exceptions are generally better reserved for other uses (like the anesthetic halothane). You're most likely to encounter chloromethane, or dichloromethane, or chloroform, or carbon tetrachloride. These are great solvents, but toxic as fuck. In the last decade most labs have made an effort to reduce or eliminate their use (halogenated organic solvents in general, not just the methanes) because they're so toxic. When I took organic 1/2 we used DCM all the time in the lab, I've since TA'd organic labs, we don't use it for anything in first year lab anymore. There's a reason, and it's not price!
    Methanol, it's just really fucking poisonous and there's so many alternatives.
    Nitromethane, there's much better uses for it. Like reduction with piperonylmethyl ketone or Knoevengal condensations with benzaldehydes. But those are topics for PMs. It might be useful, but I'm not figuring it out.
    Probably many others I'm not thinking of.

    General Tips
    Before using any solvent I advise you do a mirror test with it. On a very clean mirror or piece of glass put a drop of solvent (or spray a little with butane) and spread it around a little. Let it evaporate and make sure there is no visible residue. This isn't 100% accurate (acetone leaves a residue undetectable to the human eye), but it avoids most nasty waxes and shit.
    Read the MSDS for the product you are purchasing. Make sure the only products listed are the solvent you want. Some mixtures like hexanes and naphtha may list a few things but they should all be solvents, usually they'll end in -ane and have a Greek number before it. Ask me if you see anything you're not sure of.
    After the solvent has evaporated it's good to either use a vacuum, or heat, or a combination of the two to get the last little bit of solvent out of your oil. I like to use a double boiler type setup where I fill the pot with a concentrated salt solution. This raises the boiling point of the water enough that it can get to a temp of >106C (at sea level anyway, I'm not sure how hot it can get for folks living in the mountains.) which is the temp where THC starts to decarb pretty rapidly. Leave the container with your oil in it in the hot water bath for about 15mins to get any residual solvent out and to decarb the oil. Don't leave it in for longer as THC can start to degrade noticeably after 30 minutes or so.
    If you are using vacuum and heat don't let the temp go over 50C and don't pull too strong of a vacuum (keep it at at least half atmospheric pressure, so 8psi, or 380torr/mm Hg, 15in Hg, etc)

    Again I usually answer questions within a day so please ask if you have them. We don't want anyone getting sick or hurt.
    GroErr, 650baquet, Twitch. and 2 others like this.
  2.  
    spitsbuds

    spitsbuds Active Member

    very good informative post+rep
  3.  
    MrEDuck

    MrEDuck Well-Known Member

    You're quite welcome. I'm glad people find it useful.
  4.  
    ATAXIAN

    ATAXIAN Member

    Is there a more Healthier way?
    How about TERA LABS OIL? ( today I will try some)
    Why do I get headaches from Wax made with butane?
    Can we trust plastic containers used to store wax?
  5.  
    biglungs

    biglungs Active Member


    u r prbly getting headache cuz it is either: a) not fully purged b) made from low grade material or c) made with cheap dollar store butane

    never had a problem with plastic containers and i have waxes from 2010 stored away
  6.  
    MrEDuck

    MrEDuck Well-Known Member

    Biglungs is correct. And as long as the oil is purged its fine in plastic. I've never heard of Tera Labs so I have no idea.
  7.  
    oilmkr420

    oilmkr420 Active Member

    co2, nitrous oxide, xenon, propane, dimethyl propane, or subcritical h2o?
  8.  
    topfuel29

    topfuel29 Well-Known Member

    Chloroform-98% extraction
    Petroleum ether-90% extraction
    Chloroform, Petroleum ether, Benzene will not extract sugars, chlorophyll from the plant material. They are very non-polar organic solvents.
    I wouldn't avoid using the best solvents for extracting hash oil. Like all solvents you need to be safe, and know what your doing.
    Please read "Marijuana Chemistry" it has a great chapter on "extraction" and "isomerization" if you decide to increase your hash oil potency.
  9.  
    Fadedawg

    Fadedawg Well-Known Member

    Pentane
    Pros: Pulls great oil of equivalent quality to butane. Evaporates very fast (it also boils at body temp, hold the flask in your hands when evaporating and watch it start to boil!). Can be used for a large batch if you have a way to minimize evaporation.
    Cons: needs really good storage or you risk opening an empty bottle. Requires a glass or steel vessel to extract and evaporate in.
    Hexanes
    refers to n-hexane, isohexanes, or a mixture of isomers
    Pros: basically the same as the other hydrocarbons as far as quality (I can't tell the difference), a little better for bulk extractions as it evaporates slower than pentane, I still wouldn't leave it that long. An hour at most.
    Cons: needs to be done in glass or steel (like everything but the alcohols)
    n-Heptane
    Pros: that great alkane oil! Can sit for a few hours to really soak everything out of the weed. I'd give it a period stir to check on it and maximize extraction. Because n-heptane is produced by a species of pine tree it is available in very high purity for pretty cheap.
    Cons: Glass or steel required, flammable. Really about as minimal as you can get for an organic solvent.
    Naphtha
    Pros: Rick Simpson seems to like it. Gives an ok extract.
    Cons: Steel/Glass required (I wouldn't suggest a rice cooker, most have plastic parts that will come in contact with the solvent and probably end up in your oil), is a mix of light alkanes from crude oil so it's inconsistent batch to batch. Sometimes has traces of heavy material from production (bad distillation) or just added in because it drives production costs down and still retains the correct properties required to b


    Pentane would be my second non polar choice after Butane and before Hexane. It is a simple alkane like Butane, it just has one more carbon in the chain, with attendant Hydrogens

    Hexane is hard enough to purge, that I don't recommend Heptane. The n-Heptane that I am familiar with, comes from crude oil as opposed to pine trees and consists of a straight chain of seven single bonded carbons , surrounded by 16 hydrogen atoms. I have used Hexane to extract for up to 12 hours, without picking up undesirables.

    The problem that I see with specifying Naphtha, is that it only brackets the boiling point range, not the content. Instead of the simple alkanes Pentane and Hexane, which boil in the range of Light Naphtha, it also can contain Alkenes that boil in that range and some of them, like Benzene, are known carcinogens.
  10.  
    waximus aurelius

    waximus aurelius Member

    Can u pretty please tell me you know something about a chloroform extraction..i havent found anything other than someone saying to do a pour through dont even keep contact?
    98% sounds good to me, and theres a 711 that sells it by the litre right near me!!
  11.  
    Fadedawg

    Fadedawg Well-Known Member

    Sorry, I have never extracted with chloroform.
  12.  
    fb360

    fb360 Active Member

    The 2 cleanest and easiest to use would be compressed CO2 or N. Both elements are readily found in people, nature, and the air we breathe. C02 being the easier. Then comes butane, which has been mentioned.

    You can use the same co2 tanks that are used in grow rooms to make oil. I don't get why most people tend to stick away from the clean methods.
  13.  
    Fadedawg

    Fadedawg Well-Known Member

    I opine that the trick with all of them isto remove the residual solvent below the level of health concerns, and tasteand smell sensory thresholds.

    We routinely do that with heat and vacuum,on butane, pentane, hexane, ethanol, Isopropyl, and Methanol.

    Would you please elaborate on how youextract oil with your two CO2 tanks? Iagree that it can produce a pristine product, given the right process, but sofar it the most expensive from a capital equipment investment standpoint aswell.
    SnapsProvolone likes this.
  14.  
    waximus aurelius

    waximus aurelius Member


    really? Youve seen someone do this? Cuz im pretty sure thats inaccurate..
    You need at least 2000psi to do a co2 extraction...more better if 6k n really doin it at 10k...
    Pretty sure noones riggin up co2 room tanks to anything that compresses to 10k psi...
    Maybe some half assed lower psi system...i aint seen one yet tho, n i been reading forums for a few years...
    Theres schematics and speculation about doing it n people like oilmkrtard trying to spread some fantasy tech that just aint possible...
    Anyways maybe om wrong, i just havent seen any evidence of such...
    Show me some n ill b a believer...

    I use tane

    i asked about chloro because at 98% extraction supposedly (and the fact that im not a dumfuk n understand about the dangers n venting etc, i do allllllll my blasting nice n cozy inside the lab...no outside shit fo me..)

    thats why i asked about chlorform...

    That and theres a bodega that sells it by the gal near me...lol
  15.  
    fb360

    fb360 Active Member

    Could be, I haven't looked into the price. Furthermore, I myself haven't done it with CO2.
    My good friend however, his father owns some large industrial CO2 tanks which he uses to blow his oil. I'm not sure what the cost is, but it works just like butane, nitrogen, or anything that is a gas at STP (standard temperature and pressure)

    Also, 2000psi is kids play for compressed gases... Tensile strength of 1020(low carbon alloy steel) steel is ~65ksi.
    If you don't believe it is possible, just google "liquid co2" or "liquid nitrogen" and purchase a tank... Then complete your oil process the same way you do with butane.

    Again, both the element N and the compound CO2 exist as gas on Earth, so buckle up and enjoy the ride.

    phasediagramco2.png

    edit:
    Heres wax I made...
    IMG_20121202_160803.jpg
  16.  
    Fadedawg

    Fadedawg Well-Known Member

    Because it looks to me like there is a movement toward CO2 SCFE cannabis extraction, we have building a system on our project list for FY 2013. I started out with a simple minded approach for my system, but alas the more deeply I investigated, and talked to folks actually running commercial units, the more complicated my system design became. For instance, my design now requires three vessels, one to bring the liquid CO2 to temperature and pressure, a second to process the material in, and a third to decompress and collect the oil.

    I need to update the post, but here are some thoughts on a DIY system:http://skunkpharmresearch.com/affordable-diy-co2-extraction/
    SnapsProvolone likes this.
  17.  
    SynthBot

    SynthBot Member

    I have a quick inquiry: what would be the most efficient method in extracting thc via vacuum distillation? I also own a fractional column and hot plate/stirrer. Thanx! Also what opinions do you have of this method described in the following link: http://druglibrary.org/MedicalMj/hash/hash_oil_at_home__a_connoisseur.htm
  18.  
    stpnddg

    stpnddg Member

    So, you can vent Butane through a vent hood Yes? I am planing to get a table top Tamisium and I live ib a county patartment building and I want privacy.
  19.  
    Twitch.

    Twitch. Well-Known Member

    i would be very careful in an apt, i vent in my house but i have an 8inch duct fan that sits like 3 feet away from my blast zone and goes straight out side
    do you know where exactly ur vent hood vents into?
  20.  
    Fadedawg

    Fadedawg Well-Known Member

    We run the automated Mk II Terpenator in a ventillated closet, but the air comes in the top and is forced out vents in the bottom of the closet, because butane is heavier than air and would be difficult to exhaust with a simple overhead exhaust hood. Although it is a fully enclosed system, we run it in a ventillated closet anyway, in case something goes wrong, goes wrong, goes wrong................

    We purge in a ventillated exhaust cabinet, which is fully enclosed and has both an intake vent at both the bottom and top of the exhaust plenum, with a makeup airknife at the bottom. That will guarantee dillution and exhaust of heavier than air constituets, as well as lighter than air.

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